Some references

Jin Y.-G. & Wang H.-Y. 1992 Revision of the Lower Cambrian brachiopod Heliomedusa Sun & Hou, 1987. Lethaia, 25, 35–49.

Jin Y.-G., Hou X.-G. & Wang H.-Y. 1993 Lower Cambrian pediculate lingulids from Yunnan, China. J. Paleontol., 67, 788–798.

Skovsted C. B. & Holmer L. E., 2003. Early Cambrian (Botomian) stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia from Northeast Greenland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48 (1), 1-20.

Holmer L.E., Li G. & M. Zhu, 2003. The systematic position of the Lower Cambrian brachiopod Heliomedusa Sun and Hou. Abstracts, Palaeontological Association 47th Annual Meeting.


The systematic position of the Lower Cambrian Heliomedusa Sun and Hou from the Chengjiang lagerstatten (Yu´anshan Formation), Yunnan is re-evaluated in the light of new material. Heliomedusa was most recently assigned provisionally to the craniopsid group of brachiopods (Subphylum Craniiformea, Class Craniata, Order Craniopsida). The new specimens demonstrate that Heliomedusa has a punctate shell that was perforated by tubes, some of which contain chitinous seate at the surface. The ontogeny includes a differentiated juvenile shell (about 1 mm wide), and both the juvenile and mature have a distinctive pustulose ornamentation, with pustules arranged in radiating rows. The presence of these characters casts doubt on the craniopsid affinity of Heliomedusa and indicates that it belongs to the Family Mickwitziidae, proposed recently as a stem group of the Brachiopoda.

Zhang X.G., Hou X.G. & Emig C.C., 2003. Evidence of lophophore diversity in Early Cambrian Brachiopoda. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B, (Suppl.), 270, S65-S68.

Zhang Z.F., Han J., Zhang X.L., Liu J.N. & Shu D.G., 2004. Soft tissue preservation in the Lower Cambrian linguloid brachiopod from South China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49 ( 2), 259-266.

Zhang Z.F., Shu D.G., Han J. & Liu J.N., 2004. New data on the lophophore anatomy of Early Cambrian linguloids from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte, Southwest China. Carnets de Géologie / Notebooks on Geology, Letter 2004/04 (CG2004_L04).