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Vicki Funk
U.S. National Herbarium
Department of Botany
Smithsonian Institution, MRC 166
Washington D.C. 20560, U.S.A.
Phone 202-357-2560
Fax 202-786-2563
Michael Donoghue
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Yale University
P.O. Box 208106
New Haven, CT 06520-8106
Office phone: 203-432-2074
Fax: 203-432-5176

What follows is a list of cladistic references. Although we have tried to include all publications found in our respective databases and files, this list is certainly missing publications and should therefore be considered preliminary. In addition, there are no doubt errors and typos that have been missed in the editing. Any additions and corrections sent to us (via VAF) will be added to the list as soon as possible.



Aboitiz, F. 1988. Homology, a comparative or a historical concept? Acta Biotheoretica 37: 27-9. Adams, E. N., III. 1972. Consensus techniques and the comparison of taxonomic trees. Systematic Zoology 21: 390-397. Adams, E. N., III. 1986. N-trees as nestings: Complexity, similarity, and consensus. Journal of Classification 3: 299-317. Alberch, P. 1985. Problems with the interpretation of developmental sequences. Systematic Zoology 34: 46-58. Alberch, P., S. J. Gould, G. F. Oster, and D. B. Wake. 1979. Size and shape in ontogeny and phylogeny. Paleobiology 5: 296-317. Albert, V. A. In press. Phylogeny of the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae) from congruent morphological and molecular data sets. Nordic Journal of Botany. Albert, V. A., M. W. Chase, and B. D. Mishler. 1993. Character-state weighting for cladistic analysis of protein-coding DNA sequences. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 752-766. Albert, V. A. and B. D. Mishler. 1992. On the rationale and utility of weighting nucleotide sequence data. Cladistics 8: 73-83. Albert, V. A., B. D. Mishler and M. W. Chase. 1992. Character-state weighting for restriction site data in phylogenetic reconstruction, with an example from chloroplast DNA. In: P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, and J. J. Doyle [eds.], Molecular Systematics of Plants, 369-403. Chapman & Hall, New York. Albert, V. A., S. E. Williams, and M. W. Chase. 1992. Carnivorous plants: Phylogeny and structural evolution. Science 257: 1491-1495. Albrecht, G. H. 1978. Some comments on the use of ratios. Systematic Zoology 27: 67-71. Alcock, J. 1984. Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Allard, M. W. 1990. Further comments on Goodman's maximum parsimony procedure. Cladistics 6: 283-289. Allard, N. W., M. M. Miyamoto. 1992. Perspective: Testing phylogenetic approaches with empirical data, as illustrated with the parsimony method. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9: 778-786. Alroy, J. 1994. Four permutation tests for the presence of phylogenetic structure. Systematic Biology 43: 430-437. Alroy, J. 1995. Continuous track analysis: A new phylogenetic and biogeographic method. Systematic Biology 44: 152-178. Altaba, C. R. 1991. The importance of ecological and historical factors in the production of benzaldehyde by Tiger Beetles. Systematic Zoology 40: 101-105. Ammerman, L. K. and D. M. Hillis. 1992. A molecular test of Bat relationships: Monophyly or diphyly? Systematic Biology 41: 222-232. Anderberg, A. 1986. The genus Pegolettia (Compositae, Inuleae). Cladistics 2: 158-186. Anderberg, A. and A. Tehler. 1990. Consensus trees, a necessity in taxonomic practice. Cladistics 6: 399-402. Andersen, N. M. 1979. Phylogenetic inference as applied to the study of evolutionary diversification of semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha). Systematic Zoology 28: 554-578. Andersen, N. M. 1982. The Semi-aquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha): Phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography, and classification. Entomograph 3: 1-455. Scandinavian Science Press, Klampenborg, Denmark. Anonymous, 1973. Discussion of symposium papers on contemporary systematic philosophies. Systematic Zoology 22: 393-400. Anonymous, 1974. Trends, priorities, and needs in systematic and evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology 23: 416-439. Archibald, J. D. 1994. Metataxon concepts and assessing possible ancestry using phylogenetic systematics. Systematic Biology 43: 27-40. Archie, J. W. 1989. A randomization test for phylogenetic information in systematic data. Systematic Zoology 38: 239-252. Archie, J. W. 1989. Homoplasy excess ratios: New indices for measuring levels of homoplasy in phylogenetic systematics and a critique of the consistency index. Systematic Zoology 38: 253-269. Archie, J. W. 1990. Homoplasy excess statistics and retention indices: A reply to Farris. Systematic Zoology 39: 169-174. Armbruster, W. S. 1992. Phylogeny and the evolution of plant-animal interactions. BioScience 42: 12-20. Armstrong, D. M. 1977. Dispersal vs. dispersion: Process vs. pattern. Systematic Zoology 26: 210-211. Arthur, W. 1984. Mechanisms of Morphological Evolution. Wiley, New York. Arévalo, E., S. K. Davis, and J. W. Sites, Jr. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships among eight chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex (Phrynosomatidae) in Central Mexico. Systematic Biology 43: 387-418. Ashlock, P. D. 1971. Monophyly and associated terms. Systematic Zoology 20: 63-69. Ashlock, P. D. 1972. Monophyly again. Systematic Zoology 21: 430-438. Ashlock, P. D. 1974. The uses of cladistics. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 5: 81-99. Ashlock, P. D. 1979. An evolutionary systematist's view of classification. Systematic Zoology 28: 441-450. Astolfi, P., K. K. Kidd, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza. 1981. A comparison of methods for reconstructing evolutionary trees. Systematic Zoology 30: 156-169. Astolfi, P., A. Piazzi, and K. K. Kidd. 1978. Testing evolutionary independence in simulated phylogenetic trees. Systematic Zoology 27: 391- 400. Astolfi, P. and L. Zonta-Sparamella. 1984. Phylogenetic trees: An analysis of the treeness test. Systematic Zoology 33: 159-166. Atchley, W. R. 1978. Ratios, regression intercepts, and the scaling of data. Systematic Zoology 27: 78-83. Atchley, W. R. and D. Anderson. 1978. Ratios and the statistical analysis of biological data. Systematic Zoology 27: 71-78. Atchley, W. R., D. E. Cowley, C. Vogl, and T. McLellan. 1992. Evolutionary divergence, shape change, and genetic correlation structure in the rodent mandible. Systematic Biology 41: 196-221. Atchley, W. R., C. T. Gaskins, and D. Anderson. 1976. Statistical properties of ratios. I. Empirical results. Systematic Zoology 25: 137-148. Atchley, W. R., E. V. Nordheim, F. C. Gunsett, and P. L. Crump. 1982. Geometric and probabilistic aspects of statistical distance functions. Systematic Zoology 31: 445-460. Avise, J. C. 1974. Systematic value of electrophoretic data. Systematic Zoology 23: 465-481. Avise, J. C. and R. M. Ball. 1990. Principles of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 7: 45-67. Ax, P. 1985. Stem species and the stem lineage concept. Cladistics 1: 279- 287. Ax, P. 1987. The Phylogenetic System. The Systematization of Organisms on the Basis of their Phylogenesis. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York. Axelius, B. 1991. Areas of distribution and areas of endemism. Cladistics 7: 197-199.


Backeljau, T., B. Winnepenninckx, and L. De Bruyn. 1993. Cladistic analysis of Metazoan relationships: A reappraisal. Cladistics 9: 167-181. Bacon, J. D. 1978. Taxonomy of Nerisyrenia (Cruciferae). Rhodora 80: 159-227. Baird, R. C. and M. J. Eckardt. 1972. Divergence and relationship in deep- sea Hatchetfishes (Sternoptychidae). Systematic Zoology 21: 80-90. Baker, R. J. and J. W. Bickham. 1980. Karyotypic evolution in bats: Evidence of extensive and conservative chromosomal evolution in closely related taxa. Systematic Zoology 29: 239-253. Baker, R. J. and J. W. Bickham. 1984. Karyotypic megaevolution by any other name: A response to Marks. Systematic Zoology 33: 339-341. Baker, R. J., C. S. Hood, and R. L. Honeycutt. 1989. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the higher categories of the New World Bat family Phyllostomidae. Systematic Zoology 38: 228-238. Baker, R. J., M. J. Novacek, and N. B. Simmons. 1991. On the monophyly of Bats. Systematic Zoology 40: 216-231. Ball, I. R. 1975. Nature and formulation of biogeographic hypotheses. Systematic Zoology 24: 407-430. Ball, I. R. 1983. On groups, existence and the ordering of nature. Systematic Zoology 32: 446-451. Bandoni, S. M. and D. R. Brooks. 1987. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the Amphilinidae Poche, 1922 (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeria: Cercomeromorpha). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 1110-1128. Banks, H. 1970. Evolution and Plants in the Past. Belmont, California. Baroni-Urbani, C. 1977. Hologenesis, phylogenetic systematics, and evolution. Systematic Zoology 26: 343-346. Barrett, M., M. J. Donoghue, and E. Sober. 1991. Against consensus. Systematic Zoology 40: 486-493. Barriel, V. and P. Tassy. 1993. Characters, observations and steps: Comment on Lipscomb's "Parsimony, homology and the analysis of multistate characters." Cladistics 9: 223-232. Barthlott, W. and D. Frolich. 1983. Mikromorphologie und orientierungsmuster epicuticularer wachs-kristalloide: ein neues systematisches merkmal bei monokotylen. Plant Systematics and Evolution 142: 171-185. Barrett, M., M. J. Donoghue, and E. Sober. 1993. Crusade? A reply to Nelson. Systematic Biology 42: 216-217. Bateman, R. M. 1994. Evolutionary-developmental change in the architecture of fossil rhizomorphic lycopsids: Scenarios constructed on cladistic foundations. Biological Reviews 69(4): 71. Bateman, R. M. and W. A. Dimichele. 1994. Saltational evolution of form in vascular plants: A Neo Goldschmidian Syntheis. In: D. S. Ingram, A. Hudson [eds.]. Shape and form in plants and fungi, 63-102. Anderson Press, London. Bateman, R. M., W. A. Dimichele, and D. A. Willard. 1992. Experimental cladistic analysis of anatomically preserved arborescent lycopsids from the Carboniferous of Euramerica: An essay in paleobotanical phylogenetics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 500-559. Bateman, R. M., I. Goddard, R. O'Grady, V. A. Funk, R. Mooi, W. J. Kress, and P. Cannell. 1990. Speaking of Forked Tongues. Current Anthropology 31: 1-24. Baum, B. R. 1975. Cladistic analysis of the diploid and hexaploid oats (Avena L., Poaceae) using numerical techniques. Canadian Journal of Botany 53: 2115-2127. Baum, B. R. 1977. Oats: Wild and cultivated: A monograph of the genus Avena L. (Poaceae). Monograph no. 14, Biosystematics Resaerch Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario. Baum, B. R. 1977. Assessment of cladograms obtained for fourteen species of Avena by two methods of numerical analysis. Systematic Botany 2: 141-150. Baum, B. R. and G. F. Estabrook. 1978. Application of compatability analysis in numerical cladistics at the infraspecific level. Canadian Journal of Botany 56: 1130-1135. Baum, B. R. and L. P. Lefkovitch. 1973. A numerical taxonomic study of phylogenetic and phenetic relationships in some cultivated oats, using known pedigrees. Systematic Zoology 22: 118-131. Baum, D. A. and A. Larson. 1991. Adaptation reviewed: A phylogenetic methodology for studying character macroevolution. Systematic Zoology 40: 1-18. Baum, D. A. and K. L. Shaw. 1994. The genealogical species. In: P. Hoch and B. Schaal [eds.], ???Title??? Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. Baverstock, P. R., S. R. Cole, B. J. Richardson, and C. H. S. Watts. 1979. Electrophoresis and cladistics. Systematic Zoology 28: 214-219. Beatty, J. 1982. Classes and cladists. Systematic Zoology 31: 25-34. Begle, D. P. 1991. Relationships of the Osmeroid Fishes and the use of reductive characters in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Zoology 40: 33- 53. Bell, M. A. 1979. Persistence of ancestral sister species. Systematic Zoology 28: 85-88. Bennett, D. K. 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make, part I: A cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology 29: 272-287. Benson, L. 1962. Plant Taxonomy. New York. Berlocher, S. H. and G. L. Bush. 1982. An electrophoretic analysis of Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) phylogeny. Systematic Zoology 31: 136-155. Bernier, R. 1984. The species as an individual: Facing essentialism. Systematic Zoology 33: 460-469. Beyer, W. A., M. L. Stein, T. F. Smith, and S. M. Ulman. 1974. A molecular sequence metric and evolutionary trees. Mathematical Biosciences 19: 9-25. Bickham, J. W. and R. J. Baker. 1980. Reassessment of the nature of chromosomal evolution in Mus musculus. Systematic Zoology 29: 159-162. Bierner, M. W., W. M. Dennis and B. E. Wofford. 1977. Flavinoid chemistry, chromosome number and phylogenetic relationships of Helenium chihuahuensis. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5: 23-28. Bishop, M. J. 1982. Criteria for the determination of the direction of character state changes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 197- 206. Bishop, M. J. and A. E. Friday. 1985. Evolutionary trees from nucleic acid and protein sequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B. 226: 271-302. Blackmore, S. 1986. Cellular ontogeny. Cladistics 2: 358-362. Blackmore, S. and S. Barnes. 1987. Embryophyte spore walls: Origin, development, and homologies. Cladistics 3: 185-195. Blackmore, S., C. A. McConchie, and R. B. Knox. 1987. Phylogenetic analysis of the male ontogenetic program in aquatic and terrestrial Monocotyledons. Cladistics 3: 333-347. Blackstone, N. W. 1987. Allometry and relative growth: Pattern and process in evolutionary studies. Systematic Zoology 36: 76-78. Blackwelder, R. E. 1977. Twenty-five years of taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 26: 107-137. Blake, J. A., C. J. Bult, M. J. Donoghue, J. Humphries, and C. Fields. 1994. Interoperability of biological data bases: A meeting report. Systematic Biology 43: 585-589. Blasdell, R. 1962. A monographic study of the fern Cystopteris. Memoires of the Torrey Botanical Club 21: 1-102. Bledsoe, A. H. and F. H. Sheldon. 1989. The metric properties of DNA- DNA hybridization dissimilarity measures. Systematic Zoology 38: 93-105. Bock, W. J. 1968. Phylogenetic systematics, cladistics and evolution. Evolution 22: 646-648. Bock, W. J. 1969. Nonvalidity of the "Phylogenetic Fallacy." Systematic Zoology 18: 111-115. Bock, W. J. 1973. Philosophical foundations of classical evolutionary classification. Systematic Zoology 22: 375-392. Bock, W. J. 1974. Philosophical foundations of evolutionary classification. Systematic Zoology 22: 375-392. Bock, W. J. 1978. Comments on classifications as historical narratives. Systematic Zoology 27: 362-364. Bock, W. J. 1989. The homology concept: its philosophical and practical methodology. Zoologische Beitrage, NF?? 32: 327-353. Bolick, M. R. 1981. A cladistic analysis of Salmea DC. (Compositae-Heliantheae). In: V. A. Funk and D. R. Brooks [eds.], Advances in cladistics: Proceedings of the first meeting of the Willi Hennig Society, 115-125. The New York Botanical Garden. Bonde, N. 1977. Cladistic classification as applied to vertebrates. In: M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody, and B. M. Hecht [eds.], Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution, 741-804. Plenum Press, New York. Bookstein, F. L. 1983. Comments on a "Nonequilibrium" approach to evolution. Systematic Zoology 32: 291-300. Bookstein, F. L., R. E. Strauss, J. M. Humphries, B. Chernoff, R. L. Elder, and G. R. Smith. 1982. A comment upon the uses of Fourier methods in systematics. Systematic Zoology 31: 85-92. Bocquet-Appel, J. P. and J. N. Bacro. 1994. Generalized wombling. Systematic Biology 43: 442-448. Bottjer, P. D. 1980. Farris' "Information Content" and phylogenetic versus evolutionary classification: The philosophical differences remain. Systematic Zoology 29: 382-386. Boucout, A. J. 1978. Community Evolution and Rates of Cladogensis. In: M. K. Hecht, W. C. Steera, and B. Wallace [eds.], Evolutionary Biology 11: 545-655. Plenum Press, New York. Boucout, A. J. 1982. Paleobiologic Evidence of Behavioral Evolution and Co-Evolution. Corvallis, Oregon: by the author. Boucout, A. J. 1983. Does evolution take place in an ecogeological vacuum? Journal of Paleontology 37: 1-30. Boufford, D. E., J. V. Crisci, H. Tobe, and P. C. Hoch. 1990. A cladistic analysis of Circaea (Onagraceae). Cladistics 6: 171-182. Boughton, D. A., B. B. Collette, and A. R. McCune. 1991. Heterochrony in jaw morphology of Needlefishes (Teleostei: Belonidae). Systematic Zoology 40: 329-354. Boulter, D. 1973. Amino acid sequences of cytochrome c and plastocyanins in phylogenetic studies of higher plants. Systematic Zoology 22: 549-553. Boulter, D. 1973. Comparative sequencing of amino acid as a taxonomic tool. In: L. Reinhold and Y. Liwschitz [eds.], Progress in Phytochemistry Vol. 3, 199-229. New York. Bousquet. J., S. H. Strauss, A. D. Doerksen, and R. A. Price. 1992. Extensive ariation in evolutionary rate of rbcL gene sequences among seed plants. Proceedings of National Academy USA 89: 7844-7848. Brady, R. H. 1982. Theoretical issues and "pattern cladists." Systematic Zoology 31: 286-291. Brady, R. H. 1979. Natural selection and the criteria by which a theory is judged. Systematic Zoology 28: 600-621. Brady, R. H. 1985. On the independence of systematics. Cladistics 1: 113- 126. Braun, M. J. 1991. Review of: Molecular systematics. Systematic Zoology 40: 111-114. Bremer, B. 1987. The sister group of the paleotropical tribe Argostemmateae: A redefined neotropical tribe Hamelieae (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae). Cladistics 3: 35-51. Bremer, B. and K. Bremer. 1989. Cladistic analysis of blue-green prokaryote interrelationships and chloroplast origin based on 16s rRNA oligonucleotide catalogues. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2: 13-30. Bremer, K. 1976. The genus Relhania (Compositae). Opera Botanica 40: 1-86. Bremer, K. 1978. The genus Leysera (Compositae). Botaniska Notiser 131: 369-383. Bremer, K. 1985. Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification. Cladistics 1: 369-385. Bremer, K. 1987. Tribal interrelationships of the Asteraceae. Cladistics 3: 210-253. Bremer, K. 1988. The limits of amino acid sequence data in angiosperm phylogenetic reconstruction. Evolution 42: 795-803. Bremer, K. 1990. Combinable component consensus. Cladistics 6: 369-372. Bremer, K. 1992. Ancestral areas: A cladistic reinterpretation of the center of origin concept. Systematic Biology 41: 436-445. Bremer, K. 1995. Ancestral areas: Optimization and probability. Systematic Biology 44: 255-259. Bremer, K., C. J. Humphries, B. D. Mishler, and S. P. Churchill. 1987. On cladistic relationships in green plants. Taxon 36: 339-349. Bremer, K. and H. E. Wanntorp. 1978. Phylogenetic systematics in botany. Bot. Not. 131: 369-383. Bremer, K. and H.-E. Wanntorp. 1979. Hierarchy and reticulation in systematics. Systematic Zoology 28: 624-627. Bremer, K. and H.-E. Wanntorp. 1979. Geographic populations or biological species in phylogeny reconstruction? Systematic Zoology 28: 220-224. Bremer, K. and H. E. Wanntorp. 1981. The cladistic approach to plant classification. In: V. A. Funk and D. R. Brooks [eds.], Advances in cladistics: Proceedings of the first meeting of the Willi Hennig Society, 87- 94. The New York Botanical Garden. Bretsky, S. S. 1975. Allopatry and ancestors: A response to Cracraft. Systematic Zoology 24: 113-119. Briggs, J. C. 1969. Ocean islands and endemism: A reply. Systematic Zoology 18: 145-148. Briggs, J. C. 1974. Operation of zoogeographic barriers. Systematic Zoology 23: 248-256. Briggs, J. C. 1984. Freshwater fishes and biogeography of Central America and the Antilles. Systematic Zoology 33: 428-435. Briggs, J. C. 1987. Antitropicality and vicariance. Systematic Zoology 36: 206-207. Briggs, J. C. 1989. The historical biogeography of India: Isolation or contact? Systematic Zoology 38: 322-332. Briggs, J. C. 1994. Species diversity: Land and sea compared. Systematic Biology 43: 130-135. Britten, R. J. 1986. Rates of sequence evolution differ between taxonomic groups. Sciences 231: 1393-1398. Brooks, D. R. 1977. Evolutionary history of some Plagiorchioid Trematodes of Anurans. Systematic Zoology 26: 277-289. Brooks, D. R. 1979. Testing the context and extent of host-parasite coevolution. Systematic Zoology 28: 299-307. Brooks, D. R. 1980. Allopatric speciation and non-interactive parasite community structure. Systematic Zoology 29: 192-203. Brooks, D. R. 1980. Brooks' response to Holmes and Price. Systematic Zoology 29: 214-215. Brooks, D. R. 1981. Raw similarity measures of shared parasites: An empirical tool for determining host phylogenetic relationships? Systematic Zoology 30: 203-207. Brooks, D. R. 1981. Hennig's parasitological method: A proposed solution. Systematic Zoology 30: 229-249. Brooks, D. R. 1984. Quantitative Parsimony. In: T. Duncan and T. F. Stuessy [eds.], Cladistics: Perspectives on the reconstruction of evolutionary history, 110-132. Columbia University Press, New York. Brooks, D. R. 1985. Historical Ecology: A new Approach to Studying the Evolution of Ecological Associations. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72: 660-680. Brooks, D. R. 1988. Scaling effects in historical biogeography: A new view of space, time, and form. Systematic Zoology 37: 237-244. Brooks, D. R. 1988. Macro-evolutionary comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19: 235-259. Brooks, D. R. 1990. Parsimony analysis in historical biogeography and coevolution: Methodological and theoretical update. Systematic Zoology 39: 14-30. Brooks, D. R. 1990. Review of: Parasite communities: Patterns and processes. Systematic Zoology 39: 300-301. Brooks, D. R. and S. M. Bandoni. 1988. Coevolution and relicts. Systematic Zoology 37: 19-33. Brooks, D. R., J. N. Caira, T. R. Platt, and M. H. Pritchard. 1984. Principles and methods of cladistic analysis: A workbook. University of Kansas Museum of National History Special Publication 12: 1-92. Brooks, D. R., J. Collier, and E. O. Wiley. 1986. Definitions of terms and the essence of theories: A reply to J. S. Wicken. Systematic Zoology 35: 640- 647. Brooks, D. R. and D. R. Glen. 1982. Pinworms and Primates: A Case Study in Coevolution. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 49: 76-85. Brooks, D. R. and D. A. McLennan. 1991. Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior: A Research Program in Comparative Biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Brooks, D. R., R. T. O'Grady, and D. R. Glen. 1985. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeria) with Comments on their Adaptive Radiation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 411-443. Brooks, D. R., R. T. O'Grady, and E. O. Wiley. 1986. A measure of the information content of phylogenetic trees, and its use as an optimality criterion. Systematic Zoology 35: 571-581. Brooks, D. R. and E. O. Wiley. 1985. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and evolution: Responses to Bookstein and to Wicken. Systematic Zoology 34: 89-97. Brooks, D. R. and E. O. Wiley. 1985. Theories and methods in different approaches to phylogenetic systematics. Cladistics 1: 1-11. Brooks, D. R. and E. O. Wiley. 1986. Evolution as Entropy. Towards a Unified Theory of Biology: University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Brooks, D. R. and E. O. Wiley. 1988. Evolution as Entropy. 2nd edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Brothers, D. J. 1975. Phylogeny and classification of the aculeate Hymenoptera, with special reference to Mutillidae. University of Kansas Scientific Bulletin 50: 483-648. Brothers, D. J. 1978. How pure must a cladistic study be?-A response to Nelson on Michener. Systematic Zoology 27: 118-122. Brown, D. F. M. 1964. A monographic study of the fern genus Woodsia. Nova Hedwigia 16: 1-154, pl. 1-40. Brown, G. K. and A. J. Gilmartin. 1987. Bromeliales, related monocots and resolution of relations among Bromeliaceae subfamilies. Systematic Botany 12: 493-500. Brown, G. K. and A. J. Gilmartin. 1989. Stigma types in Bromeliaceae-a systematic survey. Systematic Botany 14(1): 110-132. Brown, J. K. M. 1994. Probabilities of evolutionary trees. Systematic Biology 43: 78-91. Brown, W. M., E. M. Praeger, A. Wang, and A. C. Wilson. 1982. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 18: 225-239. Brundin, L. 1966. Transantarctic Relationships and Their Significance, as Evidenced by Chironoimid Midges. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakadamien Handlingar 4(11): 1-472. Brundin, L. 1972. Evolution, casual biology, and classification. Zoologica Scripta 1: 107-120. Brundin, L. 1972. Phylogenetics and biogeography. Systematic Zoology 21: 69-79. Brundin, L. 1981. Croizat's biogeography versus phylogenetic biogeography. In: G. Nelson and D. E. Rosen [eds.], Vicariance biogeography: A critique, 94-158. Columbia University Press, New York. Brundin, L. Z. 1986. Evolution by orderly stepwise subordination and largely nonrandom mutations. Systematic Zoology 35: 602-607. Bryant, H. N. 1989. An evaluation of cladistic and character analyses as hypothetico-deductive procedures, and the consequences for character weighting. Systematic Zoology 38: 214-227. Bryant, H. N. 1991. The polarization of character transformations in phylogenetic systematics: Role of axiomatic and auxiliary assumptions. Systematic Zoology 40: 433-445. Bryant, H. N. 1992. The role of permutation tail probability tests in phylogenetic systematics. Systematic Biology 41: 258-263. Bryant, H. N. 1994. Comments on the phylogenetic definition of taxon names and conventions regarding the naming of crown clades. Systematic Biology 43: 124-130. Buck, R. C. and D. L. Hull. 1966. The logical structure of the Linnaean hierarchy. Systematic Zoology 15: 97-111. Buck, W. R. 1980. A generic revision of Endodontaceae. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 48: 71-159. Buckup, P. A. 1991. Cladogram characters: Predictions, not observations. Cladistics 7: 191-195. 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