References on Phoronida 1990 - 1999


Dernier changement - Last update - Último cambio = 1 August 2012


1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 - 1994 - 1995 - 1996 - 1997 - 1998



Bullard S.G., Lindquist N. L. & Hay M. E., 1999. Susceptibility of invertebrate larvae to predators: How common are post-capture larval defenses? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 191, 153-161.

Davoult D., Dewarumez J.M., Luczak C. & A. Migne, 1999. Nouvelles signalisations d'espèces benthiques sur les côtes françaises de la Manche orientale et de la Mer du Nord. Cah. Biol. Mar., 40 (2), 121-127.

Emig C. C., 1999. Phoronida. In: Embryonic Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London,

Emig C. C., García Carrascosa A. M., Roldán C. & J. M. Viétiez, 1999. The occurrence in the Chafarinas Islands (S.E. Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean) of four species of Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean areas. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 40 (2), 129-134.

Forneris L., 1999. Phoronida. In: Biodiversidade do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: síntese do conhecimento ao final do século XX, Volume 3: Invertebrados Marinhos (310 p.), eds. Migotto A. E., C. Tiago & C. Joly., n°37, 234-236, Fapesp, São Paulo.    

Freeman G., 1999. Regional specification during embryogenesis in the inarticulate brachiopod Discinisca. Developmental Biology, 209 (2), 321-339.

Gosner K. L., 1999. Phoronida. In: A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: From the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras. Peterson field guides, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 120-121 - 352 p.

d'Hondt J. L.,1999. Les invertébrés marins méconnus. Collection "Synthèses", Institut océanographique, Paris, 444 pp.

López Serrano, L., 1999. Estudio de la macrofauna bentónica de la desembocadura del río Piedras (Huelva). Tesis Doct., Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 423 pp.

Malakhov V. V. & E. N. Temereva, 1999. Embryonic development of the phoronid Phoronis ijimai (Lophophorata, Phoronida): Two sources of the coelomic mesoderm. Doklady biological Sciences, 365, 166-168.

Salvini-Plawen von L., 1999. On the phylogenetic significance of the neurenteric canal (Chordata). Zoology Analysis of Complex Systems, 102 (4), 175-183

Smith L. D., M. J. Wonham, L. D. McCann, G. M. Ruiz, A. H. Hines & J. T. Carlton, 1999. Invasion pressure to a ballast-flooded estuary and an assessment of inoculant survival. Biological Invasions, 1, 67-87.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 1999. A new rock dwelling phoronid species, Phoronis svetlanae (Lophophorata, Phoronida) from the Sea of Japan. Zool. Zhurn., 78 (5), 626-630.
  >>  See also Phoronis ijimai

ValentineJ. W., Jablonski D. & D. H. Erwin, 1999. Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion. Development, 126, 851-859.


Erber A., D. Riemer, M. Bovenschulte & K. Weber, 1998. Molecular Phylogeny of Metazoan Intermediate Filament Proteins. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 47, (6), 751-762

Çinar M. E., Ergen Z., Ozturk B. & F. Kirkim, 1998. Seasonal analysis of zoobenthos associated with Zostera marina L. bed in Gulbahce bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey). PSZN: Marine Ecology, 19 (2), 147-162.

Cohen B. L., Gawthrop A. B. & T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998. Molecular phylogeny of brachiopods and phoronids based on nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 353, 2039-2061.

Cohen B. L., Starck S., Gawthrop A. B., Burke M. E. & C. W. Thayer, 1998. Comparison of articulate brachiopod nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees leads to a clade-based redefinition of protosomes (Protostomozoa) and deuterostomes (Deuterostomozoa). Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 265, 475-482.

De Haro A., 1998. Origen y relaciones filogenéticas entre Artrópodos, Onicóforos, Anélidos y Lofoforados, según datos moleculares y morfológicos. Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. nat. (Sec. Biol.), 94 (1-2), 103-113.

Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 1998. Foronídeos del litoral luso-español. X Simposio Ibérico del Bentos marino (SIEBM), Portugal 1998, 1 p.

Garey J. R. & A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, 1998. The essential role of "minor" phyla in molecular studies of animal evolution. Amer. Zool., 38, 907-917.

Garmendia J. M., Mata A. S. & J. Mora, 1998. A check-list of the macrozoobenthos of soft subtidal bottoms of Ria de Ares y Betanzos (NW Iberian Peninsula). Nova Acta Cient. Compostelana (Biol.), 8, 209-231.

Halanych K. M., 1998. Consideration for reconstructing metazoan history: signal, resolution, and hypothesis testing. Amer. Zool., 38, 929-941.

Lagutenko Yu. P., 1998. The system of interneurones in the basiepidermal nervous plexus of phoronids (Tentaculata, Phoronoidea) and the problem of origin of the associative link in lower Bilateria [in Russian]. Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 34 (1), 64-75.

Nielsen C., 1998. Morphological approaches to phylogeny. Amer. Zool., 38, 942-952.

Nielsen C., 1998. Origin and evolution of animal life cycles. Biol. Rev., 73, 125-155.

Prasad Haldar B., 1998. Faunal diversity in India: Phoronida. In : Faunal diversity in India: a commemorative volume in the 50th year of India's independence. Alfred J.R.B., Das A.K. & Sanyal A.K. [Eds]. 497 pp. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, p. 367-370.

Salvini-Plawen L., 1998. Morphologie: Haeckels Gastraea-Theorie und ihre Folgen. Stapfia, 56, 147-168.

Salvini-Plawen L., 1998. The urochordate larva and archichordate organization: chordate origin and anagenesis revisited. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Research, 36, 129-145.

Winnepenninckx B. M. H., Van de Peer Y. & T. Backeljau, 1998. Metazoan relationships on the basis of 188 rRNA sequences: A few years later... Amer. Zool., 38, 888-906.

Zrzavy J., S. Mihulka1, P. Kepka1, A. Bezdek & D. Tietz, 1998. Phylogeny of the metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence. Cladistics, 14, 249-285.


Chen Junyuan & Zhou Guiqing, 1997. Biology of the Chengjiang fauna. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Science (Taichung), 10, 11-105.

De Robertis E. M., 1997. The ancestry of segmentation. Nature, London, 387, 25-26.

Derrick P. A. & V. S. Kennedy, 1997. Prey selection by the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Pisces: Soleidae), along summer salinity gradients in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Marine Biology, 129 (4), 699 - 711.

Emig C. C., 1997. Les Lophophorates constituent-ils un embranchement? Bull. Soc. zool. Fr., 122 (3), 279-288.

Ferraro S. P. & Cole F. A., 1997. Effects of DDT sediment-contamination on macrofaunal community structure and composition in San Francisco Bay. Mar. Biol., 130 (2), 323-334.

Herrmann K., 1997. Phoronida. In: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Wiley-Liss, New-York, 13, **-**.

Ivanova-Kazas O. M., 1997. On the ancestry of Chordata and Deuterostomia as a whole. Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 23 (4), 219-226.

Jefferies Richard P. S., 1997. A defence of the calcichordates. Lethaia, 30 (1), 1-10.

Kempf S. C., Page L. R. & A. Pires, 1997. Development of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the embryos and larvae of nudibranch mollusks with emphasis on the structure and possible function of the apical sensory organ. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 386 (3), 507-528.

Lacalli T. C., 1997. The nature and origin of deuterostomes: some unresoled issues. Invertebrate Biology, 116 (4), 363-370.

Lagutenko Yu. P., 1997. The motor neurone system in the skin nervous layer (plexus) of phoronids (Tentaculata, Phoronoidea)(in Russian) Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 33 (2), 218-227.

Lüter, C. & T. Bartolomaeus, 1997. The phylogenetic position of Brachiopoda - a comparison of morphological and molecular data. Zoologica Scripta, 26 (3), 245-253.

Martynova M. G. & O. Y. Chaga, 1997. Ultrastructural study of the heart and its relationship with the connective tissue sheath of the stomach in Rhynchonella psittacea (Tentaculata, Brachiopoda). Journal of Morphology, 234 (1), 69-77.

Niermann U., 1997. Macrobenthos of the south-eastern North Sea during 1983-1988. Ber. Biol. Anst. Helgol., 13, 144 pp.

Ruppert E. E., 1997 Introduction: Microscopic anatomy of the notochord, heterochrony, and chordate evolution. In: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates: Hemichordata, Chaetognatha, and the Invertebrate Chordates, Wiley-Liss, New York , pp. 1-13.

Radley J. D., 1997. Phoronid worm borings from the middle Purbeck beds (Lower Cretaceous) of Swanage, Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological, 118, 168.

Sánchez Tocino L., Ocaña A. & J. M. Viéitez, 1997. Occurrence of Phoronopsis californica and Phoronis australis at Granada coast (Spain, Western Mediterranean). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 38 (4), 273-276.

Shepherd S. A., 1997. Phoronids (Phylum Phoronida). In: Marine invertebrates of southern Australia, Part 3, 993-998.

Strathmann R. R. & Q. Bone, 1997. Ciliary feeding assisted by suction from the muscular oral hood of phoronid larvae. Biol. Bull., 193, 153-162.

Sumida P. Y. G. & A. M. S. Pires-Vanin, 1997. Benthic associations of the shelfbreak and upper slope off Ubatuba-SP, south-eastern Brazil. Esturaine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 44 (6), 779-784.


Castric-Fey A., 1996. Richesse et biodiversité en mer mégatidale : communautés sublittotrales rocheuses de la région Trebeurden-Ploumanac'h (Nord Bretagne, France). Cah. Biol. mar., 37, 7-31.

Emig C. C. & J. G. Harmelin, 1996. Lophophorates - Bryozoaires, Phoronidiens, Brachiopodes. Encyclopédie Clartés, Editions Clartés, Paris, suppl. 12 (4250), 1-10.

Fernández I., Pardos F., Benito J. & C. Roldán, 1996. Ultrastructural observations on the phoronid nervous system. J. Morphol., 230, 265-281.

Halanych K. M., 1996. Convergence in the feeding apparatuses of lophophorates and pterobranchs hemichordates revealed by 18S rDNA: An interpretation. Biol. Bull., 190, 1-5.

Lacalli T., 1996. Dorsoventral axis inversion: a phylogenetic perspective. BioEssays, 18 (3), 251-254.

Lagutenko YuP., 1996 . The cellular structure for the afferent link of the skin nervous plexus of phoronids (Tentaculata, Phoronoidea) metasome (in Russian). Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 32 (4), 448-459.

Mackey L. Y., Winnepenninckx B., De Wachter R., Backeljau T., Emschermann P & Garey J. R., 1996. 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta. J. Mol. Evol., 42 (5), 552-559.

Nielsen C., Scharf N. & D. Eibye-Jacobsen, 1996. Cladistic analyses of the animal kingdom. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 57, 385-410.

Niermann U., 1996. Fluctuations and mass occurrence of Phoronis mülleri (Phoronidea) in the south-eastern North Sea during 1983-1988. Senckenbergiana maritima, 28 (1/3), 65-79.

Nonato E.F. & Petti M.A.V., 1996. Macrofauna bentônica das enseadas de Picinguaba e Ubatumirim: ocorrência de espécies raras e descrição de novas espécies. III Simpósio sobre Oceanografia, Resumos., São Paulo, p. 219.

Sánchez Mata A., 1996. El macrozoobentos submareal de la ría de Ares y Betanzos: Estructura biosedimentaria y dinámica poblacional; impacto de la marea negra del Aegean Sea. Tesis Doct., Univ. Santiago de Compostela, 628 pp.


Balduzzi A. & C. C. Emig, 1995. Lophophorata. In: Check list delle specie della fauna italiana, Minelli A., Ruffo S. & La Posta S. (Eds). Edizioni Calderini, Bologna, 108, 10-23.

Breton G., Girard A. et J. P. Lagardère, 1995. Espèces animales benthiques des bassins du Port du Havre (Normandie, France) rares, peu connues ou nouvelles pour la région. Bull. trim. Soc. Géol. Normandie et Amis du Muséum du Havre, 82 (3), 7-28.

Colin P. L. & C. Arneson, 1995. Lophophorates. In: Tropical Pacific invertebrates, pp. 227-233, Coral Reef Press, Beverly Hill, CA, USA, 296 pp.

Conway Morris S., 1995. Nailing the lophophorates. Nature, London, 375, 365-366.

Davidson E. H., Peterson K. J. & R. A. Cameron, 1995. Origin of bilaterian body plans: Evolution of developmental regulatory mechanisms. Science, 270, 1319-1325.

Eldredge L. & S. E. Miller, 1995. How many species are there in Hawaii? Bishop Mus. Occasional Papers, 41, 3-18.   Electronic version via

Gee H., 1995. Lophophorates prove likewise variable. Nature, London, 374, p. 493.

Halanych K.M., Bacheller J.D., Aguinaldo A.M.A., Liva S.M., Hillis D.M. & J. A. Lake, 1995. Evidence from 18S ribosomal DNA that Lophophorates are protostome animals. Science, 267, 1641-1643.

Herrmann K., 1995. Induction and regulation of metamorphosis in planktonic larvae: Phoronis mülleri (Tentaculata) as archetype. Helgoländer Meeresunters., 49, 255-281.

Moyano H., 1995. Phoronida. In: Diversidad biológica de Chile (J.A. Simonetti, M.T.K. Arroyo, A.E. Spotorno & E. Lozada, eds) pp. 156-157. Santiago: Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica.

Nielsen C., 1995. Animal evolution. Oxford University Press, 467 pp.

Weedon M. J. & P. D. Taylor, 1995. Calcitic nacreous ultrastructures in bryozoans: Implications for comparative biomineralization of lophophorates and molluscs. Biol. Bull., 188, 281-292.

Xylander W. E. R. & T. Bartolomaeus, 1995. Protonephridien: neue Erkenntnisse über Funktion und Evolution. Biologie in unserer Zeit, 25 (2), 107-114.


Ablets V. V., 1994. Borings of phoronids from the Eocene of the Ukraine [in Russian]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 28, 155-160.

Christoffersen M. L., 1994. An overview of cladistic applications. Rev. Nordestina Biol., 9 (2), 133-141.

Christoffersen M. L. & E. Araújo-de-Almeida, 1994. A phylogenetic framework of the Enterocoela (Metameria: Coelomata). Rev. Nordestina Biol., 9 (2), 173-208.

de Bruin J., 1994. Andermaal Phoronida. [Once more on Phoronida.] Zeepaard, 54 (2), 41-43.

Faasse M., 1994. Hoefijzerwormen in Nederland. [The phoronid species Phoronis hippocrepia in the Netherlands]. Natura (Hoogwoud), 91 (6), 137-138.

Mayoral M. A., López Serrano L. & J. M. Viéitez, 1994. Macrofauna bentónica intermareal de tres playas de la desembocadura del río Piedras. Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. (Sec. Biol.), 91(4), 231-240.

Nielsen C., 1994. Larval and adult characters in animal phylogeny. Amer. Zool., 34, 492-501.

Plewes C. R., 1994. Jurassic boring phoronids - non-boring insights into the fossil record of some soft bodied worms. Palaeont. Ass. ann. Conf., Glasgow 1994, 1 p.

Plewes C. R., 1994. Jurassic boring phoronids – non-boring insights into fossil record of some soft bodied worms. Palaeontology Newsletter, 24, p. 24.

Rieger R. M., 1994. The biphasic life cycle - A central theme of metazoan evolution. Amer. Zool., 34, 484-491.

Scarlato O. A., Starobogatov Ya. I., Lobanov A. L. & I. S. Smirnov, 1994. The data bases in zoological systematics and the information concerning higher taxa of animals (in Russian). Zool. Zhurnal, 73 (12), 100-116.


Adema H., 1993. Onbekend maakt onbemind. 1: Phoronida. [Unfamiliar and unloved. 1. Phoronida]. Zeepaard, 53 (6), 141-146.

Aguirre A., Fernández I., Pardos F., Roldán C. & J. Benito, 1993. Further ultrastructural observations on the epidermis of phoronids: Phoronis australis and Phoronis hippocrepia. Transact. Amer. miscrosc. Soc., 112 (4), 280-291.

Bone Y. & N. P. James, 1993. Bryozoans as carbonate sediments producers on the cool-water Lacepede shelf, southern Australia. Sediment. Geol., 86, 247-271.

Conway Morris S., 1993. The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature, 361, 219-225.

Halanych K. M., 1993. Suspension feeding by the lophophorate-like apparatus of the pterobranch Hemichordate Rhabdopleura normani. Biol. Bull., 185, 417-427.

Harms J., 1993. Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight): a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 47 (1), 1-34.

McRae G., Camp D. K., Lyons W. G. & T. L. Dix, 1998. Relating benthic infaunalcommunity structure to environmental variables in estuaries using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and similarity analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Asseessment, 51, 233-246.

Pardos F., Roldán C., Benito J., Aguirre A. & I. Fernández, 1993. Ulstrastructure of the lophophorel tentacles in the genus Phoronis (Phoronida, Lophophorata). Can . J. Zool., 71, 1861-1868.

Popov L. E., Bassett M. G., Holmer L. E. & J. Laurie, 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa of Brachiopoda. Lethaia, 36, 1-5.

Stecher J. & J. Dörjes, 1993. Das Makrozoobenthos im Vorfeld der Insel Spiekeroog. I. Saisonale Siedlungsstrukturen im Foreshore-Bereich. Senckenbergiana maritima, 23 (1/3), 49-66.

Templado J. et al., 1993. Fauna marina circalitoral del sur de la Península Ibérica. Resultados de la Campaña Oceanográfica "Fauna I". Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, CSIC, 135 pp.

Tena J., Capaccioni-Azzati R., Torres-Gavila F. J. & R. Porras, 1993. Anélidos poliquetos del antepuerto de Valencia: distribución y categorías tróficas. Publ. Espec. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., 11, 15-20.

Wirtz P. & H. R. Martins, 1993. Notes on some rare and little known marine invertebrates from the Azores, with discussion of the zoogeography of the region. Arquipélago, Life and oceans Sciences, 11, 55-63.


Aguirre A., Benito J., Emig C. C., Fernández I., Pardos F. & Roldán C., 1992. Ultraestructura de la epidermis de Phoronis hippocrepia (Phoronida). In: Microscopio Electrónico 92, 16 Bienal Soc. Esp. Microsc. Electr., Cádiz 1990, Eds Vilches J. & A. Lopez, Serv. Publ. Univ. Cádiz, p. 3-4

Benito J., Aguirre A., Emig C. C., Fernandez I., Pardos F. & Roldán C., 1992. Estudio comparado de la ultraestructura de los tentáculos de dos especies de Foronídeos (Lophophorata). In: Microscopio Electrónico 92, 16 Bienal Soc. Esp. Microsc. Electr., Cádiz 1990, Eds Vilches J. & A. Lopez, Serv. Publ. Univ. Cádiz, p. 17-18

Breton G., 1992. Les Goniasteridae (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) jurassiques et crétacés de France. Bull. trim. Soc. géol. Normandie Amis Mus. Havre, fasc.hors-sér., 78 (4), 1-592.

Cai Guoxioing, 1992. Morphology of pelagic larvae from Zhelang Bay (South China Sea). Tropic oceanology/Redai Haiyang, Guangzhou, 11 (4), 96-101.

Chang S., Steimle F.W., Reid R.N., Fromm S.A., Zdanowicz V.S. & R.A. Pikanowski, 1992. Association of benthic macrofauna with habitat types and quality in the New York Bight. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 89 (2-3), 237-251.

Dautov S. SH. & L. P. Nezlin, 1992. Nervous system of the tornaria larva (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta). A histochemical and ultrastructural study. Biol. Bull., 183, 463-475.

Eernisse D. J., Albert J. S. & F. E. Anderson, 1992. Annelida and arthropoda are not sister taxa: a phylogenetic analysis of spiralian metazoan morphology. Syst. Biol., 41 (3), 305-330.

Emig C. C., 1992. Phoroniden: Bau, Verhalten und Regeneration. In: Meeresbiologische Exkursion. Beobachtung und Experiment. Emschermann, Hoffrichter, Körner & Zissler Eds, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 156-158.

Emig C. C. & C. Roldán, 1992. On the occurrence in Australia of three species of Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the Pacific area. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 26 (1), 1-8.

Faasse M., 1992. Phoronida from the south west coast of Walcheren(in Dutch). Zeepaard, 52 (5), 99-102.

García Raso J.E Luque A.A Templado J. Salas C. Hergueta E. Moreno D. & M. Calvo , 1992. Fauna y flora marinas del parque natural de cabo de Gata-Nijar. Madrid, 289 pp.

Gras D., 1992. Inventario faunistico del plancton de la costa valenciana. Thalassas, 10, 89-105.

Kröncke I. & E. Rachor, 1992. Macrofauna investigations along a transect from the inner German Bight towards the Dogger Bank. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 91, 269-276.

Mangum C. P., 1992. Respiratory function of the red blood cell hemoglobins of six animal phyla. Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology, 13, 117-149.

Rodríguez C. V. & J. M. Viéitez, 1992. Macrofauna bentónica de los primeros metros del piso infralitoral de la costa de Punta Umbría (Huelva). Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., 8 (2), 327-338.

Runnegar B., 1992. Evolution of the earliest animals. In: Major Events in the History of Life, Schopf J. W. (ed.). Jones and Bartlett, Boston, pp. 65-93.

Tena J., 1992. Anélidos poliquetos del antepuerto de Valencia: Ecología y aspectos tróficos. Tesis de Licenciatura, Univ. Valencia 269 pp.


Bakalem A., Boukella H. & J. C. Romano, 1991. Microdistribution du macrobenthos des sables fins de la Baie d'Alger. Pelagos, Alger, 7 (1), 49-59.

Balachandran T., 1991. Distribution of meroplankton in relation to the thermocline in the western Indian Ocean during day and night. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 33 ( 1-2), 278-285.

Corbera J., Emig C. C. & M. Zabala, 1991. Els lofoforats i afins (en catalan), pp. 335-374. Història Natural dels Països Catalans, vol. 8 : Invertebrats no artròpodes, 598 pp. Enciclopèdia Catalana, Barcelone.

Corbisier T. N., 1991. Benthic macrofauna of sandy intertidal zone at Santos estuarine system, São Paulo, Brazil. Bolm. Inst. oceanogr. S Paulo, 39 (1), 1-13.

Currás A. & J. Mora, 1991. Comunidades bentonicas de la ria del Eo (Galicia-Asturias, NW España). Cah. Biol. mar., 32, 57-81.

Davidson E. H., 1991. Spatial mechanisms of gene regulation in metazoan embryos. Development, 113, 1-26.

Everett R. A., 1991. Intertidal distribution of infauna in a Central California lagoon: The role of seasonal blooms of macroalgae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 150 (2), 223-247.

Fernández I., Aguirre A., Pardos F., Roldán C., Benito J. & C. C. Emig, 1991. The epidermis of Phoronis psammophila Cori (Phoronida, Lophophorata): an ultrastructural and histochemical study. Can. J. Zool., 69, 2414-2422.

Erwin D. H., 1991. Metazoan phylogeny and the Cambrian radiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 131-134.

Freeman G., 1991. The bases for and timing of regional specification during larval development in Phoronis. Developmental Biology, 147, 157-173.

Hammen C. S. & R. C. Bullock, 1991. Opine oxidoreductases in brachiopds, bryozoans, phoronids and molluscs. Biochem. System. Ecol., 19 (4), 263-269.

Jefferies R. P. S., 1991. Two types of bilateral symmetry in the Metazoa: chordate and bilaterian.Ciba Foundation Symposium, 162, 44-127.

Ocaña O., Bacallado J., Núñez J. & C. Brito, 1991. Presencia de Phoronis australis Haswell, 1883 (Phoronida, Lophophorata) en las Islas Canarias. Vieraea, 20, 83-88.

Pardos F., C. Roldán , J. Benito & C. C. Emig, 1991. Fine structure of the tentacles of Phoronis australis (Phoronida, Lophophorata). Acta Zool., Stockholm, 72 (2), 81-90.

Rodríguez Benito C. V., 1991. Macrofauna bentónica de los primeros metros del piso infralitoral de la costa de Punta Umbria (Huelva). Tesis Licenc., Univ. Alcalá de Henares, 137 pp.

Schram F. R., 1991. Cladistic analysis of Metazoan phyla and the placement of fossil problematica. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 33-46

Valentine J. W., 1991. The sequence of body plans and locomotory systems during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. In: Constructional Morphology and evolution, Schmidt-Kittler N. & K. Vogel (Eds), Springer Verlag, Berlin. p. 389-397.

Vandergon T. L. & J. M. Colacino, 1991. Hemoglobin function in the lophophorate Phoronis architecta (Phoronida). Physiol. Zool., 64 (6), 1561-1577.

Zimmer L., 1991. Phoronida. In: Reproduction of marine invertebrates, Giese A. C., Pearce U. B. & U. B. Pearse (eds). Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove CA, vol. 6, pp. 1-45.


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