Phoronopsis albomaculata Gilchrist 1907

Larva: Actinotrocha albomaculata Temereva, 2009

° References of the most recent published diagnoses


Last update: November 9, 2009  

Generally weakly marked collar-fold below the lophophore (genus character): sometimes only marked on the anal side.

Extended specimens more than 150 mm long, diameter 0.5-2 mm.
Colour in life: body pink, lophophore transparent with pigment spots.
Lophophore horseshoe-shaped with ends turned medially, up to one coil. Tentacles up to 160, length 2-3 mm.
Nephridia with a single funnel (generally surrounded by nephridial epithelium during the reproductive period); descending and ascending branch, nephridiopore on anal papilla opening below anus on collar fold within invagination.
Two giant nerve fibres: left fibre: 15-35 µm in diameter; right fibre only present at the nephridial level on the left side.
Longitudinal muscle bundles of feathery type; the mean formula and general formula are respectively:

22 | 21
13 | 11
= 67  and  14-33 | 13-34
 7-20 |  6-20
[44-102]   (n= 263 individuals)

Sexual reproduction dioecious; females probably having brooding pattern; males with large glandular lophophoral organs.
Asexual reproduction by transverse fission.

Phoronopsis albomaculata is embedded vertically in soft sediments, from coarse sands to mud, in waters with high levels of suspended materials and under moderate to strong bottom currents. Depth range extends from the intertidal zone to 60 m.

The distribution of Phoronis albomaculata is represented below on the map.

Type-locality: False Bay (South Africa)

© Christian C. Emig

Last update: September 30, 2017

Distribution of Phoronopsis albomaculata

  •  Most recent published diagnoses

    Dean H. K., Sibaja-Cordero J. A. & J. Cortés, 2010. Occurrence of the phoronid Phoronopsis albomaculata in Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Pacific Science, 64 (3), 459-462.

  • Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 19-54 & 180-186 & 223-224.

  • Zezina O. N. & S. N. Temereva, 2005. Brachiopoda and Phoronida. In: Biota of the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, Ed. A. V. Adrianov, vol. 3, 138 p. Dalnauka, Vladivostock.
  • Emig C. C., Roldán & J. M. Viéitez, 2001. Phoronida. In: European Register of Marine Species, a check list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification, Costello M. J., Emblow C. & R. White (eds). Patrimoines Naturels, 50, 324-325.

  • Emig C. C., García Carrascosa A. M., Roldán C. & J. M. Viétiez, 1999. The occurrence in the Chafarinas Islands (S.E. Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean) of four species of Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean areas. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 40, 129-133.

  • Emig C. C. & C. Roldán, 1992. On the occurrence in Australia of three species of Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the Pacific area. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 26 (1), 1-8.

  • References on Phoronopsis albomaculata