Phoronopsis californica Hilton, 1930

Larva: Actinotrocha californica Temereva, 2009

° References of the most recent publications

Pictures of Phoronopsis californica


Last update: September 4, 2014  

Deep collar-fold below the lophophore (genus character): about 1 mm.

Extended specimens more than 450 mm long, diameter 2.5-5 mm.
Colour in life: body orange to brown, lophophore orange, red or greenish.
Lophophore helicoidal-shaped with 4-9 coils; until 2 cm long. Tentacles more than 1500, tentacules 2-2.5 mm in length.
Nephridia with two pseudo-funnels (anal larger, oral smaller), descending and ascending branch, nephridiopore on anal papilla opening below anus on collar fold within invagination.
Two giant nerve fibres: left fibre: 70-80 µm in diameter; right fibre only present at the nephridial level.
Longitudinal muscle bundles of feathery type; the mean formula and general formula are respectively:

64 | 65
43 | 35
= 207  and  51-81 | 52-79
35-54 | 29-40
[171 - 243]   (n= 18 individuals)

Sexual reproduction: dioecious. No information on egg release; males with large membranous lophophoral organs.

Phoronopsis californica is embedded vertically in soft sediments, from coarse sands to mud; depth range from the intertidal zone to 30 m.

The distribution of Phoronis californica is represented below on the map.

Type-locality: Balboa Bay, Los Angeles (USA)

© Christian C. Emig

Last update: September 30, 2017

Distribution of Phoronopsis californica

  •  Most recent published diagnoses

    Weinberg S., 2017. Biotopes, flore et invertébrés. In: Découvrir la vie sous-marine – de la mer Rouge au Pacifique. Editions Gap, Challes-les-Eaux, vol. I (in press).

  • Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 19-54 & 180-186 & 223-224.
  • Emig C. C., Roldán & J. M. Viéitez, 2001. Phoronida. In: European Register of Marine Species, a check list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification, Costello M. J., Emblow C. & R. White (eds). Patrimoines Naturels, 50, 324-325.

    Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2000. Foronídeos del litoral luso-español. Phoronida from the Luso-Iberian zone. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natura (Sec. Biol.), 96 (1-2),77-83.

  • Sánchez Tocino L., Ocaña A. & J. M. Viéitez , 1997. Occurrence of Phoronopsis californica and Phoronis australis at Granada coast (Spain, Western Mediterranean). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 38 (4), 273-276.

  • References on Phoronopsis californica

    Fig. 1 - Phoronopsis californica: in Visayas (Philippines) - see Weinberg (2017).
    Copyright Steven Weinberg.

    Fig. 2 & 3 - Phoronopsis californica in Madeira (Portugal): São Pedro, southeast coast, about 30 m depth. Copyright Peter Wirtz.

    Dr. Peter Wirtz, PO Box 103, P - 9125 Canico, Madeira (Portugal)...
    see also his books and photos

    Fig. 4 & 5 - Phoronopsis californica in California (USA).
    Copyright Erik Daniel Erickson (1995-1999)


    Fig. 6 & 7 - Phoronopsis californica in Madeira (Portugal): specimen with a white lophophore, at 30 m depth on a sandy slope, and another in a big and dark cave in 17 m depth. Copyright Peter Wirtz.

    ...and more in...