Actinotrocha vancouverensis Zimmer, 1964

Adult: Phoronis ijimai Oka, 1897

° References of the most recent published diagnoses


Last update: October 15, 2002  

Body opaque which is heavily pigmented.
Pigmentation in two pairs of patches on the preoral lobe, a rather uniform distribution on the collar, only interupted at the tentacles, and uniform but variable in density on the trunk.
Tentacles: until 14 larval tentacles; adult tentacles as modified larval ones.
One single blood mass, on the anterior ventral surface of the stomach.
No indication on Stomach diverticulum.

  •  Most recent diagnoses
  •  Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. A key to the identification of phoronid larvae (Phoronida, Lophophorata) from the Sea of Japan [in Russian]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 83 (9), 1115-1126.

  • Freeman G. & M. Q. Martindale, 2002. The origin of mesoderm in phoronids. Developmental Biology, 252, 301-311.

  •  Santagata S. & R. L. Zimmer, 2002. Comparison of the neuromuscular systems among actinotroch larvae: systematic and evolutionary implications. Evolution and Development, 4 (1), 43-54.

  • Malakhov V. V. & E. N. Temereva, 1999. Embryonic development of the phoronid Phoronis ijimai (Lophophorata, Phoronida): Two sources of the coelomic mesoderm. Doklady biological Sciences, 365, 166-168.

  •  Emig C. C., 1982. The biology of Phoronida. Adv. mar. Biol., 19, 1-89.
  • References on Actinotrocha vancouverensis