Actinotrocha branchiata Müller, 1846

Adult: Phoronis muelleri Selys-Longchamps, 1903


Actinotrocha brownei Selys-Longchamps, 1907

Actinotrocha B Ikeda, 1901

Actinotrocha D Ikeda, 1901


° References of the most recent published diagnoses


Last update: *  

Body transparent with numerous pigmented ameobocytes (yellow pigments located at the base of the tentacles, around the preoral lobe and near the ciliated perianal ring). Up to 2 mm in length.
Tentacles: until 42 larval tentacles; adult tentacles arise as independent eversions under the bases of the larval tentacles at about 20-T stage.
Paired vacuolated stomach diverticula.
Two ventral blood masses just above the protonephridia, lateral to the stomach, and originate at about 20-T stage and usually fuse just before the metamorphosis.
Larva ready to metamorphosis from about 24-T stage shows a piriform organ anteriorly to the apical plate on the preoral lobe.

  •  Most recent published diagnoses

  •  Temereva E. N., 2009. New data on distribution, morphology and taxonomy of phoronid larvae (Lophophorata: Phoronida). Invertebrate Zoology, 6 (1), 47-64.

  •  Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, Museo de Ciencias Naturales, vol. 27, p. 19-54 & 180-186 & 223-224.

  •  Zezina O. N. & S. N. Temereva, 2005. Brachiopoda and Phoronida. In: Biota of the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, Ed. A. V. Adrianov, vol. 3, 138 p. Dalnauka, Vladivostock.

  •  Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. A key to the identification of phoronid larvae (Phoronida, Lophophorata) from the Sea of Japan [in Russian]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 83 (9), 1115-1126.
  •  Emig C. C., 1982. The biology of Phoronida. Adv. mar. Biol., 19, 1-89.
  • References on Actinotrocha branchiata

    hippocrepia hippocrepia
    © Photos C. Emig