Actinotrocha pallida Schneider, 1862

Adult: Phoronis pallida (Schneider, 1862) Silén, 1952.

° References of the most recent published diagnoses


Last update: *  

Body small, opaque, yellowish-white with heavy pigmentation.
Pigmentation yellowish-white (located in the apices of the epidermal cells) except in the apical plate; no pigmentiferous amoebocytes..
Tentacles: until 10 (sometimes 12) larval tentacles; no information about formation of the adult tentacles.
Single blood mass in a paired aggegation united in the midline in the fore ventral part of the stomach.
Stomach diverticulum unpaired.
Just before the metamorphosis (10-T stage) the metasomal sac occupies virtually the whole of the trunk coelom and the larva has about 0.6 mm in length.

  •  Most recent diagnoses

  •  Temereva E.N. & Neretina T.V., 2013. A distinct phoronid larva: morphological and molecular evidence. Invertebrate Systematics, 27 (6), 622-633.

  •  Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 19-54 & 180-186 & 223-224.

    Santagata S., 2004. A waterborne behavioral cue for the actinotroch larva of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) produced by Upogebia pugettensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Biol. Bull., 207, 103-115.

    Santagata S., 2004. Larval development of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida): Implications for morphological convergence and divergence among larval body plans. J. Morphol., 259, 347–358.

  •  Emig C. C., 1982. The biology of Phoronida. Adv. mar. Biol., 19, 1-89.
  • References on Actinotrocha pallida