Figure 65: Supplemental skeletons including marginal crests.
A-G: Pellatispira group provalei Yabe. H: P. fulgeria Whipple. Both species from Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Middle-Upper Eocene. I-J: Calcarina sp., Kutei basin, Kalimantan. Pleistocene. A-D: SEM micrographs. G-J: transmitted light micrographs of oriented thin sections of free specimens. A: the free nepiont shows early spiral chambers not yet covered by a supplemental skeleton. An uncovered open interlocular space remains between the ultimate and penultimate chambers. B: detail of lateral view of a free nepiont revealing the early presence of canaliculate spines in the first volution of the spiral chambers and the modest extent of the marginal crest at this stage of growth. C: peripheral view of the margin of the second whorl. Note the strong radial spikes that support the thin imperforate walls of the marginal crest. D: septal face in oblique-peripheral view: the septal flap is reduced to a small area above the foramen. E: a lateral, flying cover of the interlocular space, with canal orifices at its margins, is produced by a free fold of an outer lamella and represents thus a primary element of the supplemental skeleton. F: in later growth stages, a first imperforate cover of the interlocular space may be bridged by supplementary chamberlets with a perforate, bilamellar wall. G: equatorial section. The primary bilamellar walls of the spiral chambers are coloured. All uncoloured constituents of the shell are part of the supplemental skeleton. H: Extreme development of the supplemental skeleton as a broad marginal crest covered with piles that are flanked by the canals of an enveloping system. I: the axial section of a trochospiral shell demonstrates the complex pattern of the umbilical cavities between umbilical piles of lamellae. The primary bilamellar walls of the spiral chambers are coloured. J: a section perpendicular to this axis of coiling shows that canalicular spines grow outward from the supplemental skeleton that envelops the primary bilamellar (coloured) wall of the spiral chambers.
Abbreviations: a: aperture; c: canals, canal orifices; ch: (spiral) chamber; chl: (supplemental) chamberlet; csp: canaliculate (pseudo)spine; f: foramen; is: intraseptal interlocular space; lh: loophole; mcr: marginal crest; p: pore; pil: pile (of lamellae); pr: proloculus; s: septum; schl: supplemental chamberlet; sf: septal flap; sk: supplemental skeleton; spi: spike; uc: umbilical cavity system; up: umbilical plate.