Figures

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Figure 1: Globoreticulina iranica Rahaghi. Stereograph showing the principal structural elements of an adult chamber. Schematic, not to scale.

Abbreviations: a: aperture; af: apertural face; alv: alveole; b: beam; bl: basal layer; en: endoskeletal ridges; lw: lateral, free chamber wall showing faint marks of inflation of the underlying alveoles; prp: preseptal passage representing most of the chamber lumen; r: rafter; s: septum; sf: septal face; sut: chamber suture.


 

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Figure 2: Structural patterns in Praerhapydionina (A), Rhabdorites (B) and Neotaberina (C). Schema of half a cylindrical adult chamber as seen in section perpendicular to the chamber axis. Schematic, not to scale.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; pi: pillar; pst: peristomal rims or folds; s: septum; sl: septulum.


 

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Figure 3: Basic structural patterns of some Archaiasinae: planispiral-involute shells with short (A) and long (B) apertural faces relative to the periphery of the shell, and basic pattern of chamber subdivision (C-D) on the septal face including the alar prolongations. Endoskeleton in gray, foramina in the septum in black. C: Penarchaias n. gen. ; D: Archaias operculiniformis Henson; D: Archaias diyarbakirensis (Sirel). Note the socculi that produce a network of ridges on the basal layer covering the septal face. Arrow: coiling axis. Schematic, not to scale.

Abbreviations. af: apertural face; al: alar prolongation of spiral chamber; f: foramen; en: endoskeletal ridges on basal layer grading into septula in advanced species; mr: median ridge standing on periphery of previous whorl; per: periphery of shell; pi: pillar; s: septum; soc: socculus; sut: suture of spiral chambers including their alae; v: vortex.


 

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Figure 4: Tentative range chart of associates of Globoreticulina iranica. Above: European stages and Shallow Benthic Zones. Below: Nummulite standard distribution as related to SBZ zonation according to Serra-Kiel et alii (1998).


 


Plates

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Plate 1, figs. 1-9. Globoreticulina iranica Rahaghi, 1978. 1: axial section. Note the oblique sections of the septa showing the disposition of the foramina on the septal face. 2: oblique centered section. In addition a tangential section of Austrotrillina eocaenica n. sp. with its alveolar exoskeleton. 3: oblique section inclined about 30° to the axis of coiling. Note on upper right the almost axial section of the spiral chamber revealing from right to left all the elements of the structure of the chamber. In addition on the lower left an oblique section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). 4: equatorial section. Note the absence of exoskeletal partitions of the chamber lumen in the first six regularly coiled nepionic chambers. 5: oblique centered section near the equatorial plane showing details of the embryo including the long flexostyle. 6: equatorial section of young specimen. 7: tangential section inclined about 45° to the coiling axis. Note the alignment of the endoskeletal ridges on the basal layer at the bottom of the chamber and the differentiation of beams and rafters in the alveolar exoskeleton. 8: two oblique sections. 9: oblique section of specimen crushed prior to cementation of the sediment during early diagenesis.

Abbreviations: alv: alveoli; b: beam; bl: basal layer; f: foramen; en: endoskeletal ridges on basal layer; gl: glomerulus; prp: preseptal passage; r: rafter; s: septum.


 

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Plate 2, fig. 1. Austrotrillina ? sp. Large, microspheric specimen with an enormously thickened basal layer and a doubtful alveolar exoskeleton in the final uncoiled chamber. Oblique section; figs. 2-9. Austrotrillina eocaenica n. sp. 2: oblique, almost centered section perpendicular to the apertural axis. Center recrystallized. Note alcoves below the suture of the chamber. In addition, on the upper left, an axial section of the conical nepiont of Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp. and on the lower left a part of an oblique section of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950. 3: Top: section of a megalospheric specimen perpendicular to apertural axis tangentially cutting the proloculus. Bottom: microspheric specimen, section in the apertural axis. Note the triangular foramen with a pointed tooth. 4: holotype. Oblique centered section. Note alcoves below the chamber suture. 5: tangential section. Note thickness of basal layer. 6: oblique centered section showing part of long flexostyle. 7: section pependicular to apertural axis. In addition to the left, oblique section of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950. 8: section parallel to and near the apertural axis. In addition, on bottom right, an axial section of a juvenile specimen of Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp. 9: section perpendicular to apertural axis; figs. 10-12. "Peneroplis" dusenburyi Henson, 1950. 11-12: axial sections, more or less well centered. 12: oblique and equatorial sections.

Abbreviations: alc: alcoves; alv: alveoli; bl: basal layer; f: foramen; t: tooth; s: septum.


 

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Plate 3, figs. 1-24. Peneroplis planatus (Fichtel et Moll, 1798). Intraspecific variability of the flaring adult part of the shell. Megalospheric specimens of a recent population in the Persian Gulf. Lateral views, inverted X-ray graphs. Arrows: separation of spiroliniform and peneropliform habits in the same specimen.


 

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Plate 4, figs. 1-9. Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976). 1: oblique longitudinal section showing alignment of septula in successive chambers and an empty central chamber lumen and septa with multiple intercameral foramina. 2: Early juvenile stage in off-centered axial section. In addition above, an equatorial section of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950, and on the bottom right an oblique section of "Peneroplis" cf. dusenburyi Henson, 1950. 3: oblique section at a high angle to the adult shell axis. 4: axial section of spiral nepiont with embryo. 5: axial section of microspheric nepiont. At top left a centered subaxial section of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950. 6: oblique section nearly perpendicular to the axis of the adult shell. Note the arrangement of the multiple foramina in radial rows alternating with the septula. 7: oblique section at about 45° to the axis of the adult shell. 8: oblique section almost perpendicular to the axis of the adult shell. Note the radial pattern in the disposition of the foramina on the septal face. 9: oblique section inclined at about 60° to the axis of the shell; figs. 10-14. Praerhapydionina delicata Henson, 1950. 10: Section nearly perpendicular to the shell axis. Note the large, single foramen in the septum. The protruding peristomes responsible for the original stellar outline of the foramen have been cut away. 11: longitudinal section nearly parallel to the shell axis of a microsheric specimen with a short nepionic spire. Note the alignment of the septula in successive chambers. 12: longitudinal section parallel to the axis of the adult shell. 13: subaxial section of the adult shell showing a single central foramen in the late chambers. 14: longitudinal section of megalospheric shell; fig. 15. Haymanella huberi (Henson, 1950) (bottom) and Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976) (top), oblique sections inclined at about 70° to the axis of the adult shell.

Abbreviations: chs: chamber suture; f: foramen; pst: peristome; rp: radial partition; s: septum; sl: septulum; sl*: region where the alignment of the septula in successive chambers is clearly visible; so: socculus.


 

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Plate 5, figs. 1-11. Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp. 1: holotype. Subaxial, centered section. 2: spiral nepiont and conical neanic stage, subaxial section. 3-4: oblique sections progressively inclined relative to the axis of the adult shell, showing the pillared endoskeleton. 5: oblique section of neanic stage. On the left a section of Neorhipidionina spiralis n. gen. n. sp. parallel to the coiling axis. 6-7: oblique sections. 8: oblique section inclined at about 70° to the axis of the adult shell. Note the radial alignment of septula and pillars. On the left a section of Neorhipidionina spiralis n. gen. n. sp. parallel to the coiling axis. 9: oblique section with an inclination of about 45° with respect to the axis of the adult shell. 10: oblique section inclined at about 80° with respect to the shell axis. 11: axial sections of the spiral nepionic and conical neanic stage; figs. 12-14. Haymanella huberi (Henson, 1950). 12: spiral nepiont and early uncoiled chambers in longitudinal centered section, Note the interiomarginal position of the foramina in the spiral chambers. 13: Section almost perpendicular to the shell axis showing the single foramen constricted by the peristomes responsible for its stellar outline. 14: longitudinal section slightly inclined with respect to the axis of the shell showing the single foramina and the proximal outline of the chamber partitions. At the bottom an unidentified, large miliolid sectioned along the apertural axis.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; pi: pillar; rp: radial partition; s: septum; sl: septulum.


 

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Plate 6, figs. 1-10. Neorhipidionina spiralis n. gen. n. sp. 1: oblique, almost centered section showing the semiinvolute early spiral stage. Note the umbilical depression. 2: oblique section inclined at about 20° with respect to the coiling axis. At bottom left an oblique section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). 3: section parallel to and near coiling axis. Note the disposition of the foramina on the septal face. At the bottom left a section almost perpendicular to the axis of the adult shell of Haymanella huberi (Henson, 1950) showing the stellar foramen and irregular radial chamber partitions. 4: At bottom left an axial section of the holotype of this new species, and at the top right a transverse section parallel to the axis of coiling. In addition at the upper left a transverse section of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950, parallel to the axis of coiling. 5: oblique, almost centered section. At the top, the only section of Neorhipidionina williamsoni (Henson, 1948) found in Rahaghi's material. The species can be recognized by its medium-sized megalosphere, significantly larger than the one in N. spiralis and smaller than the one in N. macfadyeni (Henson, 1948). 6: section parallel to the axis of coiling. 7: oblique section inclined at about 45° to the axis of coiling. Note the umbilical depression on the left side of the section. 8-9: horizontal sections of the flaring adult parts of the shell showing the radial alignement of the septula in successive semiannular chambers. 10: oblique section of the flaring adult part of shell showing the radial pattern of the endoskeleton. At the bottom an oblique section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950).

Abbreviations: anp: annular passage; ch: chamber, chamber lumen; chl: chamberlet, chamberlet lumen; f: foramen; rp: radial partition; s: septum; sl: septulum; ud: umbilical depression; wh: whorl suture.


 

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Plate 7, figs. 1-6. Archaias diyarbakirensis (Sirel, 1996). Megalosheric specimens. 1: Transverse section parallel to the axis of coiling. 2: oblique section. Megalosphere tangentionally sectioned. Note the disposition of foramina on the septal face of the alar prolongations. 3: oblique centered section. 4: oblique section. Note the socculi on the septal face connecting neighboring pillars by a network of ridges. 5: On the right an oblique centered section revealing an unusually large and irregularly shaped, possibly twinned megalosphere. In addition on the left an oblique section of Neorhipidionina spiralis n. gen. sp. Note the umbilical depression. 6: Top left: transverse section parallel to the axis of coiling. At bottom left, a section of Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976) inclined at about 60° to the shell axis and on the right an oblique section of Valvulammina deformis d'Orbigny, 1826; figs. 7-8. Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). Megalospheric specimens, oblique centered and axial sections. 7 left: very large specimen, possibly transitional to Archaias operculiniformis (Henson, 1950).

Abbreviations: f: foramen; pi: pillar; pi*: alignment of pillars in successive chambers; s: septum; so: socculus; ss: septal suture; ud: umbilical depression; wh: whorl suture.


 

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Plate 8, figs. 1-10. Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950. Megalospheric specimens. 1: oblique, nearly axial section showing the tight winding of the whorls and the disposition of the foramina on the alar septal face. 2: transverse section parallel to the axis of coiling. At the top right, an oblique section of the early whorls of Globoreticulina iranica Rahaghi, 1978. 3: subaxial section. On the left an equatorial section of "Peneroplis" dusenburyi Henson, 1950. 4: transverse section parallel to and near the axis of coiling. Note the single row of pillars in the alar prolongation. In addition, at the top center, a transverse section parallel to but distant from the axis of coiling of Neorhipidionina spiralis n. gen. n. sp. On the right an oblique longitudinal section of Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp. inclined at about 20° to the axis of the adult shell. 5: transverse section parallel to the axis of coiling. Note the pillar in the plane of symmetry of the shell standing upright on the periphery of the previous whorl, and the double row of foramina on tha alar septal face. 6: axial sections of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950) (left) compared to those of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950 (right). Note the presence of pillars in Archaias. 7: subaxial section. On the right, oblique section of the base of the cone of Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp., an oblique section of Rotaliconus persicus n. gen. n. sp. and a section of Praerhapydionina delicata Henson, 1950, nearly perpendicular to the axis of the adult shell. 8-9: subequatorial sections. 10: subequatorial section. At top right: oblique section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). At bottom: Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976).

Abbreviations: anp: (lateral) annular passage; f: foramen; fl: flexostyle; len: lateral endoskeletal ridges on the basal layer grading into septula; men: median endoskeletal ridges; pi: pillar; pr: proloculus; s: septum; wh: whorl suture.


 

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Plate 9, figs. 1-8. Coskinolina perpera Hottinger et Drobne, 1980. 1: axial section, off center. In addition, at bottom, tangential section of Globoreticulina iranica Rahaghi, 1978. 2: Axial section. The excentric spiral nepiont is sectioned tangentially. In addition, at top, an oblique section of Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971. 3: Tangential section parallel to the cone mantel line. In addition, at the bottom, an oblique section through the flaring, adult part of Neorhipydionina spiralis n. gen. n. sp. 4: transverse section parallel to axis of the cone. 5: axial section off-centered. 6: oblique section inclined at about 45° to the cone axis. In addition, at top right a fragment of Austrotrillina eocaenica n. sp. and at the bottom transverse and axial sections of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). 7: section perpendicular to the axis of and at the base of the cone showing the disposition of foramina in the septal face. 8: axial section of a specimen with a crushed spiral nepiont. At top left an oblique section of Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971.

Abbreviations: ch: chamber, chamber lumen; f: foramen; ma: marginal aperture; pi: pillar; s: septum; so: socculus.


 

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Plate 10, figs. 1-3. Coskinolina cf. liburnica Stache, 1875. 1: axial section off-centered. Below it, an axial section of "Peneroplis " dusenburyi Henson, 1950. 2: oblique section inclined about 30° to the cone axis. 3: axial section off-centered. Below it, a section perpendicular to the axis of coiling of Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971; figs. 4-6. Barattolites cf. trentinarensis Vecchio et Hottinger, 2007. 4: oblique centered section of juvenile specimen. At lower right an oblique section of the adult test of Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976) inclined at about 60° to the axis of the cone. 5: section parallel to and near the axis of the cone. At bottom center an axial section of Neorhipidionina spiralis n. gen. n. sp. 6: subaxial section. In addition, an oblique section of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950; figs. 7-8. Dictyoconus indicus Davies, 1930. 7: axial section of microspheric specimen and radial section of Sorites sp. (So). 8: axial section of megalospheric specimen. On the left: two oblique centered sections of Archaias operculiniformis Henson, 1950, that differ with repect to their angle in relation to the axis of coiling. Bottom left to right: sections of Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976), Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950) and Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp.

Abbreviations: b: beam; ch: chamber lumen; f: foramen; en: endoskeletal ridges on basal layer; m: (empty) chamber margin; pi: pillar; s: septum; wh: whorl suture.


 

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Plate 11, fig. 1. Coskinolina douvillei (Davies, 1930). Axial section of juvenile specimen; figs. 2-7, 8 right. Dictyoconus indicus Davies, 1930. Megalospheric specimens. 2 left: oblique centered section showing details of the exoskeleton in a tangential section of the more adult chambers. On the right from top to bottom: oblique sections of Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1976, Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950) and of a fragment of Haymanella huberi (Henson, 1950). 3: axial section, 4: transverse section parallel to axis of the cone, 5: oblique section inclined at about 60° to the axis of the cone. 6: oblique section inclined at about 30° to the axis of the cone. 7: subaxial (left) and basal (right) sections. 8: At top left a fragment of a large shell showing details of the exoskeleton. On the right a section inclined at about 60° to the axis of the cone. Bottom center: a section perpendicular to the axis of the cone of Coskinolina perpera Hottinger et Drobne, 1980. So: Sorites sp.

Abbreviations: b: beam; ch: chamber lumen; f: foramen; ma: marginal foramen; pi: pillar; r: rafter; s: septum; wh: whorl suture.


 

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Plate 12, figs. 1-9. Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971. 1: subaxial section of a possibly microspheric specimen. 2: oblique section inclined about 70° to the axis of coiling. It shows the radial arrangement of the vental cameral septa. Note the umbilical plate glued onto the ventral surface of the previous whorl. At the left, an oblique centered section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi. 3: two oblique sections inclined at about 20° and 30° to the axis of coiling. 4: microspheric (left) and megalospheric (right) shells in oblique sections. 5: on the left: a section approximately parallel to a dorsal cone mantel line. On the right: an axial section of the adult part of the cone of Coskinolina cf. liburnica Stache. 6: axial section. On the far right: the axial section of a juvenile specimen of Globoreticulina iranica Rahaghi, 1978. 7: at the left: Rotaliconus persicus n. gen. n. sp., a section tangential to the convex cone base, and Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971, an axial section. 8: section approximately parallel to the dorsal cone mantel line. In addition, to the left, an oblique section of Austrotrillina eocaenica n. sp. 9: section parallel to the axis of coiling showing the umbilical plates.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; fo: folium; is: intraseptal canal system; pr: proloculus; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate; vc: funnel.


 

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Plate 13, figs. 1-10. Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971. Megalospheric specimens. 1: oblique section. 2: subaxial section. 3: axial section. In addition, at bottom center and top left, an axial and an oblique section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). 4: axial section (left) and section parallel to the axis of coiling (right). 5: axial section. 6: section through the dorsal part of the shell, almost perpendicular to the axis of coiling, showing the dorsal inclination of the cameral septa. 7: section through the ventral part of the shell, perpendicular to the coiling axis. Note the umbilical plates. At upper left a tangential section of Rotaliconus persicus n. gen. n. sp. 8: oblique sections, much inclined to the axis of coiling (left) and parallel to the axis of coiling (center). On the right an oblique section of Coskinolina perpera Hottinger et Drobne, 1980. 9: section through a dorsal cone apex, perpendicular to the axis of coiling. On the left, a tangential section of Globoreticulina iranica Rahaghi, 1978. 10: axial section of small specimen and horizontally sectioned dorsal cone apex. On the right, a section parallel to the axis of coiling coiling of Archaias diyarbakirensis (Sirel, 1996).

Abbreviations: f: foramen; fo: folium; foa: foliar aperture; is: intraseptal canal system; s: septum; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate; vc: funnel.


 

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Plate 14, figs. 1-13. Rotaliconus persicus n. gen. n. sp. Oblique sections. All inclinations estimated in degrees are relative to the axis of coiling of the shell. 1: holotype. Oblique centered section parallel to the cone mantel line. At top left, an oblique centered section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950). 2: oblique section inclined about 50°. Note the heavy dorsal ornamentation by perforate pustules. 3: oblique centered section nearly parallel to the cone mantel line. 4: oblique centered section with an inclination of about 60°. 5: oblique centered section inclined at about 30°. 6: transverse section nearly parallel to the coiling axis. 7: oblique centered section, nearly parallel to cone mantel line. Note at left center the tiny porcelaneous streptospiral cornuspirinid (? Gordiospira Heron-Allan et Earland) that is common in Bartonian limestones of the Mediterranean realm and must elsewhere be described and classified properly. 8: oblique section inclined about 40°. 9: two oblique sections. At upper left, an oblique section of Praerhapydionina delicata Henson, 1950. 10: oblique section showing an intercameral foramen. On the right an oblique section of Rabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976). 11: Section tangential to the convex cone base of a shell fragment that reveals the umbilical structure. 12: section tangential to base of the cone showing the disposition of the funnels along the ventral sutures of the spiral chambers and of their folia. At bottom left, a section perpendicular to the axis of the adult shell of Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp. showing its pillared endoskeleton. 13: section tangential to the convex base of the cone, demonstrating the umbilical overlap of the tapered foliar tips. On the left an oblique section of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950) and on the right an oblique section through the basal part of a Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp.

Abbreviations: ch: chamber lumen; dco: dorsal orifice of canal system; f: foramen; fo: folium; foa: foliar aperture; is: intraseptal interlocular space; p: pore; s: septum; up: umbilical plate; vc: funnel.


 

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Plate 15, figs. 1-9. Additional material in the Allemann collection from Iran concerning Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950) and some of the associated larger foraminifera. 1-3, 5: Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950), megalospheric specimens. 1: a section parallel and close to the axis of coiling (left) and one tangential to alar prolongations (right). Note the parallel ridges at the bottom of the alae. 2: centered oblique section inclined at about 80° to the axis of coiling. 3: section tangential to an alar prolongation. Note the single row of foramina on the alar septal face. 4: "Peneroplis" sp. lacking endoskeletal ridges. Oblique section showing the single row of alar foramina in an interiomarginal position. On the right, a longitudinal section of the nepiont of Haymanella huberi (Henson, 1950). 5: Equatorial section of large specimen. Note the progressive elongation of the septal face in the final whorl. 6: Orbitolites minimus Henson, 1950. Axial section. Note the complicated intersections ot the multiple flexostyles that constrict the dumbbell-shaped megalosphere. 7: Archaias diyarbakirensis (Sirel, 1996). Axial section of microspheric specimen. 8: From left to right: Oblique sections of Rotaliconus persicus n. gen. n. sp., Neotaberina neaniconica n. gen. n. sp. and Medocia blayensis Parvati, 1971. 9: Five sections of Penarchaias glynnjonesi (Henson, 1950) (left): The axial section shows the symmetry of the interiomarginal foramina in the spiral chamber. The section producing a stellar outline of the test is tangential to the polar realm and shows the indistinct spiral winding of the vortex. In addition, there is an oblique centered section of Orbitolites minimus Henson, 1950, and a section perpendicular to the axis of the adult shell of Rhabdorites malatyaensis (Sirel, 1976).

Abbreviations: f: foramen; fl: flexostyle; en: endoskeletal ridges on basal layer; men: median endoskeletal ridge; pi: pillar; pr: proloculus; s: septum; v: vortex.