Figures

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Figure 1: Patterns of ornaments in ultimate and penultimate chambers of Miscellanea (A) and Daviesina langhami (B). Stereographs showing the bilamellar primary wall and the independent geometry of the first supplementary outer lamella that is folded over itself. The folds cover the interlocular space except the radial canals. These connections between the interlocular space and the ambient environment represent the impending enveloping canal system that determines the nature of the supplemental skeleton. Note the distribution of pores that can be generated only in the presence of a median layer that separates the two lamellas in the primary chamber wall. Schematic, not to scale.

Abbreviations: af: apertural face; b: beads; gr: grooves of the feathering along the shoulders of the intraseptal interlocular space; il: inner lamella; ml: median layer; ol: outer lamella; p: pore; pap: papilla; ssk: supplemental skeleton; sp: spurs of the feathering.


 

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Figure 2: Daviesina langhami Smout, 1954. A: Microspheric specimen, equatorial section. B: Megalospheric specimen, equatorial section. C, D: megalospheric specimens, axial sections. The horizontal orientation of the axial sections indicates a dorsal side (upwards) and a ventral side (downwards). Note the asymmetry of the foramen.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; isc dist: distal end of intraseptal canal system determining the basic ornamental pattern; isc prox: proximal part of intraseptal canal system; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate. Specimens A & D from sample 92010a, specimens B & C from sample 93504; Dhak pass, Salt Range, Pakistan, top of Lockhard Lst - SBZ 4.


 

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Figure 3: Bolkarina aksarayi Sirel, 1981. Stereograph to explain the structure, schematic, not to scale. Peripheral part of sector; radial and oblique sections. Supplemental apertures, possibly along the sutures of the expand chambers, are omitted, main equatorial foramina tentatively placed in interiomarginal position. Note the biserial arrangement of the annular passages. Compare with Hottinger, 2005, fig. 4 on p. 107.

Abbreviations: af: apertural face; apa: annular passage (in preseptal position); expch: expanse chamber; f: foramen; puch: penultimate (expanse) chamber; rpa: radial passage; s: septum; sut: (chamber) suture; tpa: transverse tubular passage. Arrow: direction of growth.


 

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Figure 4:  Stratigraphic distribution of the taxa belonging to the Miscellaneidae and an hypothesis as to their phylogenetic relationships.


 


Plates

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Plate 1. External lateral views of some heavily ornate involute shells; figs. 1-13. Daviesina langhami Smout, 1954. Note the whorl sutures indicating the imperfect involution of the test and the doubling of the periphery in 3 and 4. Specimens 1-4 from sample 92010a, Dhak pass, Salt Range, Pakistan, top Lockhart Lst., SBZ 4. Specimens 5-13 from sample 92014, Nammal Gorge, Salt Range, Lowest part of Nammal shales, SBZ 5; figs. 14-20. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853). All specimens from samples 95108 and 95109, Dhak pass, Salt Range, lowest part of Patala shales, SBZ 4. Note specimen 20 that is figured from both sides in order to show the degree of reflection in the ornament; figs. 21-27. Miscellanea juliettae Leppig, 1988. All specimens from sample 93563, Dandot village, Salt Range, Pattala shales below coal seam, SBZ 3.

Abbreviations: dp: double periphery; per: simple periphery; wsut: whorl suture.


 

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Plate 2. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853). Megalospheric specimens, equatorial sections in transparent light. All specimens from samples 95108 and 95109, Dhak pass, Salt Range, lower Patala shales, SBZ 4.

Abbreviations: bic: straight wall between protoconch and deuteroconch that indicates the biconch quality of the nepiont; f: foramen; isc: intraseptal canal system; spc: spiral canal, px: paries proximus; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 3. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853). Megalospheric specimens, axial sections in transparent light. All specimens except 5 and 15 from samples 95108 and 95109, Dhak pass, Salt Range, Pakistan, lower Patala shales, SBZ 4; 5 & 15 from sample 95601, Le Quillet, western Aquitaine (southwestern France), SBZ 4.

Abbreviations: alp: lumen of alar prolongation; bic: biconch wall; f: foramen; isc: intraseptal canal system; pct: peripheral chamber tip; px: paries proximus; s: septum; spc: spiral canal, up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 4. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853). Megalospheric topotypes of M. "rhomboidea" Leppig, 1988. Specimens collected by Kuss & Scheibner from Wadi Araba area, Egypt, SBZ 4.; fig. 1: tangential and centered-oblique sections; fig. 2: axial section; fig. 3: tangential and equatorial sections; fig. 4: axial sections; fig. 5: axial and oblique-centered sections. Ay: Assilina yvettae Schaub; fig. 6: axial sections. Ks: Kathina selveri Smout, 1954; A: Assilina sp; fig. 7: oblique sections with glomalveolinids. Gd: Glomalveolina dachelensis (Schwager); Gt: Glomalveolina telemetensis Hottinger; fig. 8: axial sections, details showing the enveloping canal system (env) and its orifices (or); fig. 10: axial section; fig. 11: axial sections. Note on the upper right a section of the penultimate chamber with incipient enveloping canals inspite of the extremely low number of secondary lamellae.


 

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Plate 5. Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853). Microspheric topotypes of M. "rhomboidea" Leppig, 1988. Specimens collected by Kuss & Scheibner from Wadi Araba area, Egypt, SBZ 4. fig. 1: oblique section inclined to about 30° in respect to the axial plane; fig. 2: axial section; fig. 3: transverse section parallel to the axis of the shell; fig. 4: oblique sections of both gnerations; fig. 5: transverse section close to the axial one; fig. 6: axial section; fig. 7: transverse section parallel to but quite far from the shell axis, axial section of megalospheric specimen and of Plumokathina aff. subsphaerica (Sirel) on lower left; fig. 8: transverse section far from center. Note the enveloping canal system in the last whorl; figs. 9-10: tranverse sections; fig. 11: tangential section showing ornamentation.

Abbreviations: alp: alar prolongations; env: enveloping canal system; isc: intraseptal canal system; pap: papilla; px: paries proximus.


 

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Plate 6. Miscellanea dukhani Smout, 1954: figs. 1-7, and Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853): figs. 8-9; figs. 1-2: micro- and megalospheric specimens, equatorial sections. from sample Gill 123. Salt Range, Pakistan; fig. 3: megalospheric specimen, equatorial section. From sample 96108, Dhak pass, Salt Range. Patala shales, SBZ 4; figs. 4-5: microspheric specimens, equatorial and axial sections. From sample Gill-"Dhak pass, Salt Range. Patala shales", SBZ 4. Note the megalospheric Ranikothalia nuttalli (Davies) cemented with specimen; figs. 5-7: axial sections, not quite centered, of megalosheric specimens. Note in 6 the delicate last whorl that is compressed and broken by the compaction of the sediment. From sample Gill 123, Salt Range, Patala shales.

Miscellanea miscella (d'Archiac & Haime, 1853); figs. 8-9: axial sections of a microspheric and a megalospheric specimen. From sample 95109, Dhak pass, Salt Range, lower Patala shales, SBZ 4.

Abbreviations: alp: alar prolongations; f: foramen; lh: loophole; mc: marginal cord of Ranikothalia nuttalli; pct: peripheral chamber tip; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 7. Miscellanea dukhani Smout, 1954; figs. 1-8: paratypes from Qatar, "highest zone of the Paleocene" according to Smout, 1954. British Museum (Natural History) P 40151; figs. 1-2 & 6: megalospheric generation, equatorial and axial sections. 1 and 6 are the same specimen at different standart enlargements to facilitate comparisons; figs. 3-8: microspheric generation, in part poorly preserved, equatorial and axial sections. Note in 3 and 7 the peculiar ornamentation with double rows of beads (b) along the sutures and with a single row of papillae (pap) in between the septa.

Miscellanea yvettae Leppig, 1988; figs. 9-16: all specimens from sample 73932 H. Schaub, Tapiau-Cazères, Petites Pyrénées, Aquitaine, southwestern France, SBZ 3; fig. 9: equatorial section of microspheric specimen. Note the narrowing of the spire in the last whorls that corresponds to the rise of two peripheries in the adult stages of growth; figs. 10-15: megalospheric specimens in equatorial sections; fig. 16: axial section of megalospheric specimen.


 

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Plate 8. Miscellanea yvettae Leppig, 1988. Tapiau-Cazères, Petites Pyrénées, Aquitaine (southern France), SBZ 3; figs. 1-2: transverse sections perpendicular to the shell axis of microspheric specimens. Note the ornamentation on the inner whorls as seen in tangential section; figs. 3-4 & 6: detail (3) and complete axial sections (4 & 6) of microspheric specimens showing a double periphery due to equatorial lacing of the shell (arrow); fig. 5: axial section of microspheric specimen without equatorial lacing; fig. 7: axial section of megalospheric specimen. Details showing the apertural features and the fan-shaped intraseptal canal system (isc); figs. 8-10: oblique random sections of microspheric specimens; fig. 11: oblique random section of megalospheric specimen. 

Abbreviations: f: foramen; isc: intraseptal canals; s: septum; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 9. Miscellanea yvettae Leppig, 1988. Wadi Araba, Egypt, from samples collected by Kuss & Scheibner, SBZ 3; figs. 1-3: microspheric specimens, oblique sections; fig. 4: megalospheric specimen with an equatorial lacing in the ultimate half whorl ; axial section; figs. 7-12: megalospheric specimens, random sections near to the equatorial plane (7-8) and near the axis of the shell (6 & 9-12). Note in 5 the tangential section of M. yvettae in the middle left of the picture, showing a single row of beads, and on the upper right an oblique section of Plumokathina subsphaerica (Sirel).


 

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Plate 10. Miscellanea juliettae Leppig, 1988; figs. 1-15 from sample 93563, Dandot village, Salt Range (Pakistan). SBZ 3; figs. 17-21 from samples 93501 – 93503, Nammal Gorge, Salt Range, Lockhart Limestone. SBZ 3; figs. 1-3: megalospheric specimens, equatorial sections; figs. 4-5: microspheric specimen, not quite centered equatorial section with structural details; figs. 6-12: megalospheric specimens, equatorial (6) and axial sections showing structural details; figs. 13-16: megalospheric specimen of small size, equatorial sections; figs. 17-18: equatorial sections of megalospheric (17) and microspheric (18) specimens; figs. 19-20: axial sections of microspheric (19) and megalospheric (20) specimens; fig. 21: equatorial section of microspheric specimen with narrowly spaced septa figured at half standard enlargement.

Abbreviations: co: canal orifices; f: foramen; isc: intraseptal canals; pct: peripheral chamber tip; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 11. Miscellanea juliettae Leppig, 1988. All from Wadi Araba area, Egypt, collected by Kuss & Scheibner. SBZ 3; figs. 1-8: random sections of microspheric specimens. Note the openig of the spiral in the last whorl; figs. 9-11: random sections of megalospheric specimens. Note the petal-like aspect of the chambers in sections with no or little inclination in respect to the equatorial plane of the shell. The petal-like intersection of the chambers is due to a particularly large interlocular space that straddles the proximal end of the septum. In 4 and 11 there are also sections of Plumokathina subsphaerica (Sirel).

Abbreviations: co: canal orifices; f: foramen; isc: intraseptal canal system; pct: peripheral chamber tip; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 12. Miscellanites iranicus (Rahaghi, 1983). All from sample Kar 13 collected by A. Braud, Kuh-e-Kargan near Kermanshah, Taurus (Iran). SBZ 3; figs. 1-4 & 6: microspheric specimens, randomly oblique sections; figs. 1-2 & 5: additional megalospheric specimens, oblique sections, except specimen 5 with a good axial section.Note the multiple foramina (f) in the tangential section 6. On the right an oblique section of Redmondina henningtoni Hasson.


 

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Plate 13. Miscellanites iranicus (Rahaghi, 1983). Megalospheric specimens. All from sample Kar 13, Kuh-e-Kagan near Kermanshah. SBZ 3; figs. 1-4: axial sections; fig. 5: equatorial and axial sections; fig. 6: axial section; fig. 7: oblique and tangential sections. In addition there is a section perpendicular to the shell axis of Cincoriola ovoidea Haque, 1958; figs. 8-11: more or less perfect equatorial sections; fig. 9: in addition: Fallotella alavensis Mangin; fig. 12: oblique-centered section showing detail of foraminal features.

Abbreviations: ecs: enveloping canal system; f: foramen; fu: funnel; s: septum.


 

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Plate 14. Miscellanites meandrinus (Carter, 1861). All from a donation of material by E. Sirel, from Agri, northeastern Turkey, except 9 from sample H. Schaub 72008, Le Quillet. Aquitaine, (southwestern France). SBZ 4; figs. 1-6: microspheric specimens with structural details in 1; figs. 7-14: megalospheric specimens, subequatorial and centered subaxial sections.

Abbreviations: ecs: enveloping canal system; f: foramen.


 

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Plate 15. Miscellanites meandrinus (Carter, 1861), from Wadi Araba, Egypt, collected by Kuss & Scheibner; figs. 1-5: microspheric specimens, random oblique sections. The meandrine septa appear in the tangential parts of the sections; figs. 6-14: megalospheric specimens, oblique-centered sections (6-12), tangential sections (13, 14).

Abbreviations: ecs: enveloping canal system; f: foramen; ilsp: interlocular intraseptal space; ms: meandrine septum; p: pores.


 

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Plate 16. Miscellanites primitivus (Rahaghi, 1983). All specimens from Narp, near Pau, Aquitaine, (southwestern France). SBZ 3; figs. 1-2: external lateral view; figs. 3-4: external apertural view with apertural face; fig. 5: oblique-centered section; figs. 6-8, 11-18 & 21-24: axial sections of megalospheric specimens; figs. 9 & 19: megalospheric specimens, transverse sections parallel to shell axis; fig. 10: microspheric specimen, axial section. Note the multiple foramina.

Abbreviations: af: apertural face; f: foramen; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 17. Miscellanites primitivus (Rahaghi, 1983). All specimens from Narp, near Pau, Aquitaine, (southwestern France). SBZ 3. Equatorial and subequatorial sections; figs. 1-5: microspheric generation; figs. 6-16: megalospheric generation. Note the heavy umbilical plate separating a wide spiral canal.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; sk: supplemental skeleton as revealed by an enveloping canal system; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 18. Miscellanites minutus (Rahaghi, 1983). All from samples Kar 11 and 12 collected by A. Braud, Kuh-e-Kargan near Kermanshah, Iran. SBZ 3; figs. 1-8: megalospheric specimens, sections parallel to or in the shell axis; fig. 9: microspheric specimen, axial section; figs. 10-13: microspheric specimens, transverse sections perpendicular to shell axis; figs. 11-21: megalospheric specimens, sections perpendicular to shell axis or in the equatorial plane. In addition, there is a fragment of "Taberina" daviesi in 19, of "Globoreticulina" paleocaenica Rahaghi in 20.


 

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Plate 19. Miscellanites minutus (Rahaghi, 1983). Megalospheric specimens from samples Kar 11 and 12, Kuh-e-Kargan near Kermanshah, Iran. SBZ 3; figs. 1 & 9-10: axial sections; figs. 2, 8 & 11: transverse sections parallel to the shell axis; figs. 3, 5 & 7: oblique sections.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; fu: funnel; pr: proloculus; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 20. Ornatononion moorkensii n. gen. n. sp. All from Mons, Belgium. SBZ 2; figs. 1-7: equatorial sections; 5 is a little oblique to show the strong umbilical plate and the wide spiral canal; figs. 9-10: transverse sections parallel to coiling axis; fig. 11: oblique section showing spiral canal; figs. 8 & 12-13: axial sections. Note the absence of a noticable dimorphisme in this small-sized, early species.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; s: septum; spc: spiral canal; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 21. Ornatononion moorkensii n. gen. n.sp.; figs. 1-9: from Mons, Belgium. SBZ 2. Equatorial sections at low enlargment in order to compare with Pl. 18, figs. 10-22; figs. 6-9: oblique sections progressively more parallel to the coiling axis; figs. 10-16: Specimens from different places in the Petites Pyrénées, Aquitaine, collected by J. Villatte & Y. Tambareau. SBZ 2; fig. 10: oblique section, from S'ours; figs. 11-12: oblique and axial sections, from Bouholoup; fig. 13: oblique-centered section, from S'ours; fig. 14: transverse section perpendicular to coiling axis, from Bouholoup; figs. 15-16: subequatorial sections, from Vaquemorte south of Montbrun.

Abbreviations: f: foramen; s: septum; spc: spiral canal; u: umbilicus with some funnel-canals; up: umbilical plate.


 

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Plate 22. Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi, 1978). All from Haimana, Central Anatolia, Turkey. SBZ 2 or 3; figs. 1, 4, 6 & 12-13: equatorial sections; figs. 11 & 14: tangential sections; fig. 17: axial section; all other sections are more or less oblique, many centered.

Abbreviations: f: foramina; s: septum.


 

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Plate 23. Bolkarina aksarayi Sirel, 1981; figs. 1-6: all from Haymana, central Anatolia, Turkey. SBZ 2 or 3; figs. 1-3: sections in or near to the equatorial plane; fig. 4: equatorial section with spiral nepiont; figs. 5-6: tangential section of lateral skeleton parallel to the lateral surface of the discoidal shell showing several successive expanse chambers.

Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi, 1978); figs. 7-13: Haymana, central Anatolia, SBZ 2 or 3; figs. 7-8: tangential sections; figs. 9-10 & 12-13: more or less perfect equatorial sections; fig. 11: subaxial section.

Abbreviations: apa: annular passage (in preseptal position); can ?: canal system orifices ?; expch: expanse chamber; f: foramen; ilsp: interlocular intraseptal space; n: nepiont (end of nepionic spiral); p: pores; pr: proloculus; rpa: radial passage; s: septum; sk: supplemental skeleton (as revealed by a simple canal system); tpa: transverse tubular passage.


 

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Plate 24. Bolkarina aksarayi Sirel, 1981. From Haymana, central Anatolia, Turkey. SBZ 2 or 3; fig. 1: equatorial section, overview with spiral nepiont; fig. 2: section perpendicular to the axis of the shell tangentially cutting the early neanic expanse chambers and the annuli in the equatorial plane in later neanic stages of growth; fig. 3: detail of equatorial section showing the intercameral foramina between successive annuli and the lateral connections from the annular to the dome-shaped, expanded parts of the chambers; fig. 4: equatorial section of a nepiont; fig. 5: oblique section with a few annular chambers; fig. 6: oblique section near to involute nepiont; fig. 7: almost centered axial section showing involute spiral nepiont; overview; fig. 8: axial section; details of nepionic involute chamber arrangement and crossections of the annuli; fig. 9: equatorial section with nepiont showing the linear-radial pattern of the passages from the annular to the expanded parts of the chamber.

Abbreviations: apa: annular passage (in preseptal position); expch: expanse chamber; f: foramen; n: nepiont (end of nepionic spiral); p: pores; pr: proloculus; rpa: radial passage; s: septum; tpa: transverse tubular passage.


 

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Plate 25. Bolkarina aksarayi Sirel, 1981. From Haymana, central Anatolia, Turkey. SBZ 2 or 3; figs. 1-2 & 5: Sections parallel to the axis of the shell in more or less distance from the center; figs. 3-4: Sections progressively inclined in respect to the axis of the shell, far from the center. Note in 5 top right the tangential section of Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi, 1978), possibly the megalospheric generation of Bolkarina aksarayi.

Abbreviations: apa: annular passage (in preseptal position); expch: expanse chamber; puch: penultimate (expanse) chamber; rpa: radial passage; s: septum; tpa: transverse tubular passage.