Sous-embranchement (subphylum) des Rhynchonelliformea  
Classe des Rhynchonellata 
Ordre des Terebratulida 

Sous-ordre des Terebratulidina 
Super-famille des Terebratuloidae 

Genus Gryphus Megerle von Mühlfeld, 1811
[Type species = Anomia vitrea (Born, 1778) p. 104]
[non Gryphus Brisson, 1760, nom. null. (see DALL, 1920, p. 310); =Liothyrina Œhlert, 1887b, p. 1,316, obj. (see Thomson, 1927, p. 193); nom. nov. pro Liothyris Douvillé, 1879, p. 265, non Conrad, 1875]

Elongate oval in outline; ventribiconvex; foramen small to medium, epithyrid; symphytium partially visible; pedicle collar short; cardinal process small, slightly concave, variable; outer hinge plates slightly con- cave, narrowly triangular; crural bases narrow and flush with inner margin of outer hinge plates; crural processes scooplike in side view; loop short, about 0.25 valve length, variable; descending branches slightly diverging; transverse band broad, gently arched.

Eocene - Present

Diagnosis from volume 4 of the
Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (2006)

Extant Species of Gryphus
  • G. vitreus (Born, 1778)
  • G. capensis Jackson, 1952
  • G. tokionis Dall, 1920
  • G. clarkeana (Dall, 1895)
  • Diagnosis

    Gryphus vitreus   (Born, 1778)

    Type locality: Port-Mahon, Minorca (Spain)
    Depth range: 78 - 2678 m

    Anomia vitrea (Born, 1778) p. 104
    Terebratula vitrea var. minor Philippi, 1836, p. 99
    Terebratula vitrea: Jeffreys, 1878, p. 403
    Liothyris vitrea: Davidson, 1886, p. 6
    Liothyrina vitrea: Fischer & Œhlert, 1891, p. 51
    Gryphus vitreus : Dall, 1920, p. 311 (includes varieties elongatus Jeffreys and dilatatus Jeffreys)
    Eurysina minor: Cooper, 1983, p. 259

    Original Diagnosis - Born (1778, p. 104-105)

    Testa ovata convexa lævi, valvae alterius apice incuruato pertuso, margine intergerrimo.



    Description - Logan (1979)

    Adult shell commonly reaching dimensions of over 30 mm length. Shell elongate-oval in outline, strongly biconvex, almost white in colour, smooth except for concentric growth lamellae, semitransparent, punctate. Anterior commissure rectimarginate to slightly uniplicate. Foramen large, epithyridid, with pedicle collar. Ventral short, massive, with short hold-fast papillae. Delthyrium closed by small concave symphytium, slightly upraised at the centre.
    Loop of dorsal skeleton extends about one-quarter of length of brachial valve, attached by short crura to hinge plate, crural bases extending along inner margins of slightly concave outer hinge plates ; no inner hinge plates. Discrete crural processes present. Descending branches of loop slightly diverging, transverse band ventrally arched at the centre. Cardinal process small, slightly concave. Hinge teeth excavated by posteriorly-placed socket. Small oval-shaped muscle impressions in both valves, interiors of both valves with prominent grooves for reception of mantle canals, four in each valve, which branch and rejoin near the shell margins. Lophophore plectolophous, spicules abundant.

    Born 1778

    Click to enlarge

    Gryphus vitreus in a Venus casina thanatocœnosis at 180 m depth - © photo C. Emig