Sous-embranchement (subphylum) des Rhynchonelliformea  
Classe des Rhynchonellata 
Ordre des Terebratulida 

Sous-ordre des Terebratulidina 
Super-famille des Terebratuloidae 
Super-famille des Dyscolioidae 
Super-famille des Cancellothyroidea 

Genus Terebratulina d'Orbigny, 1847
[Type species = Anomia retusa Linné, 1758 (p. 587)]

Small to large, ovate to subpentagonal, slightly auriculate, valves biconvex; anterior commissure rectimarginate to uniplicate; surface costellate, costellae may be enlarged or granular, with prominent nodules in young; umbo suberect, foramen incomplete, mesothyrid to permesothyrid, deltidial plates disjunct. Pedicle collar present, median septum and hinge plates absent; cardinal process small; socket ridges and crural bases fused, forming prominent ridge, hinge teeth without swollen bases, but with sulcus on inner face; crura converging, crural processes united to form ringlike loop, transverse band ventrally arched.

Upper Jurassic - Present

Diagnosis from volume 5 of the
Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (2006)

Extant Species of Terebratulina
  • T. retusa (Linné, 1758)
  • T. septentrionalis (Couthouy, 1838)
  • T. japonica (Sowerby, 1846)
  • T. abyssicola (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
  • T. cumingii Davidson, 1852
  • T. unguicula (Carpenter, 1864)
  • T. cailleti Crosse, 1865
  • T. crossei Davidson, 1882
  • T. kiiensis Dall & Pilsbry, 1891
  • T. radula Hedley, 1904
  • T. valdiviae Blochmann, 1908
  • T. cavata Verco, 1910
  • T. hawaiiensis Dall, 1920
  • T. callinome Dall, 1920
  • T. reevei Dall, 1920
  • T. photina Dall, 1920
  • T. pacifica Yabe & Hatai, 1934
  • T. kyusyuensis Yabe & Hatai, 1934
  • T. kitakamiensis Hayasaka, 1938
  • T. peculiaris Hatai, 1940
  • T. sirahamensis Hatai, 1940
  • T. meridionalis Jackson, 1952
  • T. hataiana Cooper, 1973
  • T. compressa Cooper, 1973
  • T. austroamericana Zezina, 1981
  • T. australis Bitner 2006
  • Diagnosis




    Terebratulina kiiensis   Dall et Pilsbry, 1891

    Type locality: “Coasts of Province Kii, Japan, Strearns;”
    Depth range: 18 - 1370 m (? 4640 m).

    Terebratulina crossei : Helmcke (1939)
    Terebratulina magalhaenica Helmcke, 1939
    Terebratulina? crossei : Fischer & Œhlert (1882)
    Terbratulina crossii Davidson, 1882
    Terebratulina Dall, 1908
    Terebratulina crossei ?: Foster (1969)

    Diagnose in preparation -

    Note: Helmcke (1939b, p. 240) mentioned that the diagnoses of the new species would follow later in a revision of the genus. Foster (1989, p. 284) stated that “the differences among the species of Terebratulina are in great need of further study on a worldwide level.” As Lüter & Sieben (2005) emphasized, this revision was never done until today.

    Terebratulina retusa   Linné, 1758

    Type locality: « Habitat en pelago Norvegico » (Linné, 1767)
    Depth range: 9 - 3614 m

    Terebratulina caputserpentis Linné, 1767, not Linné (1758)

    Anomia caputserpentis Linné, 1767
    Anomia pubescens Linné, 1767
    Terebratula retusa (Linné) : Retzius (1788)
    Criopoderma caputserpentis (Linné) : Poli (1795)
    Terebratula aurita Fleming, 1822
    Terebratula costata Lowe, 1825
    Terebratula emarginata Risso, 1826
    Terebratula quadrata Risso, 1826
    Delthyris spatula Menke, 1830
    Terebratula caput-serpentis (Linné) : Sowerby (1847)
    Terebratulina caputserpentis (Linné) : d'Orbigny (1847)
    Terebratula striata Leach, 1852

    Terebratulina retusa (Linné) : Dall (1920)

    Diagnose in preparation -

    Terebratulina austroamericana   Zezina, 1981

    Type locality: at 700 m, "Akademik Kutschatov" expedition 1968
    Depth range: 18 - 2000 m

    Terebratulina crossei Davidson: Fischer & Œhlert (1892)
    ?Terebratulina sp. Foster, 1974

    Diagnose from description of Araya & Bitner (2018) modified -

    Shell with lateral commissure nearly straight, forming an angle around 120° with the anterior edge of the beak; anterior commissure rectimarginate. Beak short, rounded, suberect, foramen slightly attrite, large, circular, permesothyrid with minute, rudimentary disjunct deltidial plates. Pedicle wide and short, distally divided into rootlets.
    Shell surface of both valves covered with numerous ribs of rounded-triangular section with intercalated intermediate ribs up to fourth order. Some additional ribs bifurcate towards anterior edge; about 100 fine ribs present at edge of ventral valve, giving border a minute crenulation. Uneven, fine commarginal growth lines cross radial ribs.
    Ventral valve with a sub-circular (or sub-elliptical) convexity in lateral view, but with a clearly regular parabolic outline in posterior or anterior views; valve interior with small hook-like teeth, pedicle collar short. Muscle scars not evident in examined specimen. Crura long and thin. Loop broken, with only wide, flattened dorso-ventrally descending branches. Dorsal valve slightly convex in lateral view.

    Figure d'après Araya & Bitner (2018)

    Terebratulina cailleti   Crosse, 1865

    Type locality: Guadeloupe (Antilles, France).
    Depth range: 32 - 1163 m

    Diagnose - original (Crosse,1865)

    T. trigono-piriformis, convexiuscula, subpellucida, albido-cinerea, radiatim lirato-costulata, costulis distantibus, obsolete subgranosis, aliis e margine ad foramen euntibus, aliis interpositis et mox evanidis; utraque valva, subinflata, antice flexuosa, dorsalis in medio depressa, costulis fere omnino carens; foramen oblongo-rotundatum, sat magnum; rostrum attenuato-productum, oblique truncatum. — Long, valvæ dorsalis (e foramine ad marginem) 10, long, valvæ ventralis 8 1 /2, lat. utriusque valvæ 7 mill.

    From Pl. I of Crosse (1865)

    Specimen of Terebratulina cailleti Crosse from W. Marie Galante, revealing internal details, d'après Gaspard (2018).