Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912

Larva: Actinotrocha harmeri Zimmer, 1964


Phoronis pacifica Torrey, 1901

Phoronopsis striata Hilton, 1930

Phoronopsis viridis Hilton, 1930

? Phoronopsis malakhovi Temereva, 2000

° References of the most recent published diagnoses

Pictures of Phoronopsis harmeri


Last update: July 5, 2007  

Collar-fold below the lophophore (genus character): well-marked around the lophophore.

Extended specimens up to 220 mm long, diameter 0.6-4 mm.
Colour in life: body pink to greenish, lophophore transparent sometimes white pigmented.
Lophophore spiral with 1 to 2.5 coils on each side. Up to 400 tentacles, 2-5 mm in length.
Nephridia with two pseudo-funnels (anal smaller, oral larger), descending and ascending branch, nephridiopore on anal papilla opening below anus on collar fold within invagination.
Two giant nerve fibres: left fibre: 20-60 µm in diameter; right fibre only present at the nephridial level.
Longitudinal muscle bundles of feathery type; the mean formula and general formula are respectively:

35 | 36
20 | 18
= 109  and  22-58 | 21-55
12-28 | 11-26
[75-166]   (n= 529 individuals)

Sexual reproduction dioecious; females shed the ova directly in the sea-water; males with large membranous lophophoral organs.
Asexual reproduction by transverse fission.

Phoronopsis harmeri is embedded vertically in soft sediments from sands to muddy sand, sometimes with a coarse fraction; depths range from the intertidal zone to 102 m, with a common range from 0-20 m. Densities may reach 28,000 ind.m-2.

Phoronis harmeri is a rather cosmopolitan species: the distribution is represented below on the map.

Type-locality: Departure Bay, Vancouver Island (Canada)

© Christian C. Emig

Last update: March 2, 2017

Distribution of Phoronopsis harmeri

  •  Most recent published diagnoses

    Handbook of alien species in Europe (2009) : Comments on the so-called alien phoronid.

    Santagata S. & B. L. Cohen, 2009. Phoronid phylogenetics (Brachiopoda; Phoronata): evidence from morphological cladistics, small and large subunit rDNA sequences, and mitochondrial cox1. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157, 34-50.

  • Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 19-54 & 180-186 & 223-224.

  • Zezina O. N. & S. N. Temereva, 2005. Brachiopoda and Phoronida. In: Biota of the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, Ed. A. V. Adrianov, vol. 3, 138 p. Dalnauka, Vladivostock.
  • Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. Distinctive features of the microscopical anatomy and ultrastructure of the metanephridia Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 (Phoronida, Lophophorata)[in Russian]. Invertebrate Zoology, 1 (1), 93-103.

    Emig C. C., 2003. Phylum Phoronida. In: Protostomes. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, (ed. 2) vol. 2, 491-497.

  • Del Carmen Brito M., C. C. Emig, J. Núñez, R. Riera, C. Roldán & J. M. Viéitez, 2002. Nuevos registros de foronídeos en Lanzarote, islas Canarias (Lophophorata: Phoronida). Vieraea, 30, 153-159.
  • Emig C. C., Roldán & J. M. Viéitez, 2001. Phoronida. In: European Register of Marine Species, a check list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification, Costello M. J., Emblow C. & R. White (eds). Patrimoines Naturels, 50, 324-325.

    Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2001. The morphology of the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri [in Russian]. Biol. Morya, Vladivostock, 27 (1), 34-42.

    Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2000. Foronídeos del litoral luso-español. Phoronida from the Luso-Iberian zone. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natura (Sec. Biol.), 96 (1-2), 77-83.

  • Emig C. C., García Carrascosa A. M., Roldán C. & J. M. Viétiez, 1999. The occurrence in the Chafarinas Islands (S.E. Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean) of four species of Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean areas. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 40 (2), 129-134.

  • Emig C. C. & A. Golikov, 1990. On phoronids of the Far Eastern Seas of the USSR and their disribution in the Pacific Ocean [in Russian]. Zool. Zh., 69, 22-30.

  • References on Phoronopsis hameri

    Dr. Peter Wirtz, PO Box 103, P - 9125 Canico, Madeira (Portugal)...
    see also his books and photos