Actinotrocha harmeri Zimmer, 1964

Adult: Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912


Actinotrocha ikedai A Selys-Longchamps, 1907

° References of the most recent published diagnoses


Last update: October 1, 2002  

Body large and transparent without epidermal pigmentation.
No pigmentation only concentrated yellow pigmented amoebocytes occurring in characteristic locations: margin of the preoral lobe, tentacles, metasomal sac, collar ring muscle, oesophagus, perianal ciliated ring.
Tentacles: until 20 larval tentacles; adult tentacles as modified larval ones.
Two pairs of blood masses: one pair, disc-shaped, in the dorso-lateral corners of the preoral lobe and another pair in the collar, ventro-laterally, at the site of the third tentacules.
Presence of a piriform organ, shortly before the metamorphosis.

  •  Most recent published diagnoses

    Temereva E.N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2015. Metamorphic remodeling of morphology and the body cavity in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophotrochozoa, Phoronida): the evolution of the phoronid body plan and life cycle. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15 ( 229), 28 p.

    Temereva E. N. & E. B. Tsitrin, 2014. Development and organization of the larval nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri: new insights into phoronid phylogeny. Frontiers in Zoology , 11 (3) - doi:10.1186/1742-9994-11-3.

  •  Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 19-54 & 180-186 & 223-224.

  •  Zezina O. N. & E. N. Temereva, 2005. Brachiopoda and Phoronida. In: Biota of the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, Ed. A. V. Adrianov, vol. 3, 138 p. Dalnauka, Vladivostock.

  •  Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. A key to the identification of phoronid larvae (Phoronida, Lophophorata) from the Sea of Japan [in Russian]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 83 (9), 1115-1126.

  •  Santagata S. & R. L. Zimmer, 2002. Comparison of the neuromuscular systems among actinotroch larvae: systematic and evolutionary implications. Evolution and Development, 4 (1), 43-54.

  • Zimmer L., 1991. Phoronida. In: Reproduction of marine invertebrates, Giese A. C., Pearce U. B. & U. B. Pearse (eds). Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove CA, vol. 6, pp. 1-45.

  •  Emig C. C., 1982. The biology of Phoronida. Adv. mar. Biol., 19, 1-89.
  • References on Actinotrocha harmeri