Br@chNet
Novocrania

Sous-embranchement (subphylum) des Craniiformea
Classe des Craniata
Ordre des Craniida
Super-famille des Cranioidea
Famille des Craniidae

 
 
 
 
 


Genus Novocrania Lee et Brunton, 2001
 

[Type species = Patella anomala Müller, 1776; ICZN plenary powers, 1988, opinion 1468]
[=Criopus Poli, 1791, p. 34 (type, C. fimbriatus Poli, 1795), ICZN plenary powers, 1988, opinion 1467; Criopoderma Poli, 1795, ICZN plenary powers, 1988, opinion 1467; Orbicula Cuvier, 1798, obj., ICZN plenary powers, 1988, opinion 1468; Orbicularius Duméril, 1806; Cryopus Deshayes in Lamarck, 1836, ICZN plenary powers, 1988, opinion 1467; Criopododerma Agassiz, 1848, ICZN plenary powers, 1988, opinion 1467]

Dorsal valve convex to conical; beak subcentral to posterocentral, smooth, finely pustulose or rarely finely costellate; posterior margin commonly straight; recent species with dendroid shell punctation; dorsal posterior adductor scars large, rounded, thickened, widely separated; anterior scars commonly crescentic, raised above valve floor; weak myophragm bisects muscle field; encrusting; ventral valve uncalcified in recent species, otherwise sometimes thin; ventral posterior adductor scars large, anterior scars united medially; marginal mantle setae observed in recent forms; valve margins variably thickened, with limbus or faint submarginal rim.
Paleogene (Eocene) - Present

Diagnosis from Lee & Brunton (1986), Lee (1987), and
volume 2 of the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology

Extant Species of Novocrania
  • N. anomala (Müller, 1776)
  • N. turbinata (Poli, 1795)
  • N. lecointei (Joubin, 1901)
  • N. huttoni (Thomson, 1915)
  • N. philippinensis (Dall, 1920)
  • N. roseoradiata (Jackson, 1952)
  • N. indonesiensis (Zezina, 1981)
  • ? N. altivertex Zezina, 1990

  • ?N. chathamensis (Allan, 1940)
  • Diagnosis
    Diagnosis
    Diagnosis
    Diagnosis
    Diagnosis


    Novocrania anomala  (Müller, 1776) - type species

    Type locality: Hår-Krøllen (Denmark)
    Depth range: some meters to 1665 m.
    Geological range: Holocene

    Patella anomala Müller, 1776, p. 237
    Patella anomala Müller, 1778, p. 9 & pl. V
    Orbicula anomala Cuvier, p. 435, 1799
    Patella distorta Montagu, 1808
    Anomia turbinata Dillwyn, 1817 (non Poli)
    Orbicula norvegica Schumacher, 1817
    Crania personata (part.) Defrance, 1818
    Crania personata Blainville, 1818 (non Lamarck)
    Discina ostreoides Turton, 1819 (not Lamack)
    Orbicula norvegica Lamarck, 1819
    Crania pourtalesi Dall, 1871
    Crania anomala turbinata: Fischer & Œhlert, 1891, p. 7
    Crania lamellosa Dall, 1920 p. 270
    Criopus anomalus Fleming, 1822
    Crania rostrata Höninghaus, 1828
    Orbicula turbinata Deshayes & Milne Edwards , 1836
    Crania anomala Lovén, 1846
    Criopus orcadensis Leach, 1852
    Crania anomala var. alba, Jeffreys, 1869

    probaby Novocrania altivertex Zezina, 1990
    ...


    Facsimile of Patella anomala figured on Plate V
    by Müller (1779 p. 9) - see


    Diagnosis of Robinson (2017)

    Dorsal valve exterior smooth to hummocky with concentric growth lamellae, dorsal valve interior with adductor muscle scars flush with valve surface or slightly raised, small anterior muscles commonly attached to a tiny anterior septum, ventral valve sometimes organic, commonly partly calcitic/partly organic or completely calcitic, ventral valve punctate (when calcitic), rostellum organic, ventral posterior adductor muscle scars organic, in dead shells ventral muscle scars and rostellum latent.

     

    Original Diagnosis Müller (1776)

    2870. Patella anomala, testa rudi, sulca, orbiculari, vertice submarginali.


    Novocrania turbinata  (Poli, 1795)

    Type locality: Sicily (Italy)
    Depth range: some meters to ? 885 m.
    Geological range: Oligocene to Holocene

    Patella kermes da Costa et Humphey, in da Costa, 1770
    Anomia turbinata Poli, 1795, p. 189 & pl. XXX
    Patella distorta Montagu, 1808
    Anomia turbinata Dillwyn, 1817 (non Poli)
    Crania personata (part.) Defrance, 1818
    Crania personata Blainville, 1818 (non Lamarck)
    Crania pourtalesi Dall, 1871
    Crania anomala turbinata: Fischer & Œhlert, 1891, p. 7
    Crania ringens Höninghaus, 1828
    Orbicula turbinata Deshayes & Milne Edwards , 1836

    Crania suessi Reeve, 1862
    Neocrania reevei (Reeve), Lee & Brunton (1986)

    Crania japonica Adams, 1863
    Craniscus japonicus : Dall (1921)
    Novocrania japonica : Robinson & Lee (2011)


    Diagnosis of Robinson (2017)

    Dorsal valve exterior commonly minutely spinose or pustulose, dorsal valve interior with anterior adductor muscles and support structure attached to raised pedestals, small anterior muscles attached to median process, ventral valve has radial canals, is mostly impunctate, the calcitic rostellum has a slim spike, the ventral anterior adductor muscle scars are calcitic or uncommonly latent.


    Robinson (2017, p. 517) states: "The dorsal valve is sub-conical, the exterior has a hummocky surface with an ornament of concentric growth rings [as in N. anomala?] and, in many populations, specimens may have minute pustules or spines".
    Other Novocrania like lecointei and huttoni show such minute pustules.

     

    Facsimile of Plate XXX of Poli (1795) for Anomia turbinata
    - see


    Robinson (2017) establishing this species as valid did not studied specimens from the type-locality, nor from the Mediterranean bathyal. This species may occur together with N. anomala, but even with large material available in many Mediterranean areas, no extensive study has been performed on these Novocrania: consequently, their geographic and bathymetric distribution cannot be established.

    Original Diagnosis of Crania suessii - Reeve, 1862

    Cran. testâ suborbiculari, posticè interdum truncato-quadratâ, cicatricibus posticis ovatis, obliquis, rostello amplo, calloso, limbo antico incrassato, granato ; valvâ superiore solidiusculo, ragoso, aurantio-rufo pallidè tinctâ, cicatricibus internis posticis angustè ovatis, callosis elevatis, obliquè confluentibus.

    Original Diagnosis of Crania japonica - Adams, 1863

    C. testa crassa, solida, suborbiculari; valva superiore convexa, rugosa, apice elate, subcentrali; margine irregulari; impressienibus muscularibus validis, rotundatis, apephysi interna bifurcata, prominente; impressione pallii multilobata.


    Novocrania lecointei  (Joubin, 1901)

    Type locality: “N° 578b. - Faubert VII – Lat.70°23'S., Long. 82°47'O - 8 Octobre 1898 – Profondeur : 500 m environ.”
    Depth range: 40 - 3310 m.
    Geological range: late Middle Eocene to Holocene.

    ? Crania pourtalesii Dall, 1890, p. 232 (not Crania anomala var. pourtalesii Dall, 1871, p. 35)
    Crania lecointei Joubin, 1901 (p. 9-11)
    Crania patagonica Dall, 1902
    Crania joubini Thomson, 1918
    Discina? joubini Thomson, 1918
    Crania valdiviae Helmcke, 1940
    Crania antarcticaeensis Hatai, 1965
    Neocrania lecointei: Lee & Brunton, 1986
    Novocrania lecointei: Lee & Brunton, 2001

    Diagnosis of Robinson (2017)

    Dorsal valve varies from smooth to hummocky, with weak to strong concentric growth rings/lamellae, to spinose with tubular hollow spines, usually broken short, dorsal valve exterior white to grey, ventral valve organic with organic rostellum.

    Diagnosis should be completed at least by reproduction characters (see in front).

    Original description by Joubin (1901) - in facsimile
    Genre CRANIA.
    Crania Lecointei n. sp.
    PI. II, fig. i3, 14 et 15.
    N° 578 b. — Faubert VII. — Lat. 70°23' S., Long. 82°47' O. — 8 Octobre 1898. — Profondeur : 5oo m environ.
    Couleur de l'animal vivant : Ochraceus à Bruneus clair (cf. Chromotaxia de Saccardo).

    Cette pêche a rapporté deux échantillons de cette Crania fixés chacun sur un petit galet ; l'un est intact, l'autre brisé. près sous la crête qui, partant du sommet pédonculaire, va aboutir au-dessus des cruras. Cette disposition se voit nettement dans la figure 4. Il en résulte que la région terminale de la valve est découpée par ces deux cloisons en trois pyramides, le pédoncule occupant celle du milieu. Je ne puis presque rien dire de l'animal n'ayant pu en extraire que quelques fragments. Les glandes génitales, très peu ramifiées, et contenant des œufs murs, n'étaient développées que dans la paroi de la cavité viscérale, et nullement dans ses dépendances palléales. Je n'ai pu voir la forme des sinus palléaux. L'un des bras avait 13mm de long, il ne m'a pas paru différer de ce que l'on sait de ces organes chez R. psittacea. Le cul-de-sac postérieur du tube digestif est droit et non renflé en vésicule. Les cœcums de la glande hépatique ont une grande longueur.


    Novocrania huttoni  (Thomson, 1916)

    Type locality: "Whangaroa, Cook Strait" - [New Zealand].
    Depth range: 0 - 900 m.

    Crania huttoni Thomson, 1915, p. 41-42
    Neocrania huttoni: Lee & Brunton, 1986, p. 141
    Novocrania huttoni: Lee & Brunton, 2001, p. 5

    Diagnosis of Robinson (2017)

    Dorsal valve exterior may be smooth or have fine radial costae, rarely developed into minute spines, dorsal valve exterior often mottled, brown-reddish brown and white, ventral valve organic with non-crystalline calcareous rostellum.

    There is in the Dominion Museum a tablet holding three valves from an unknown locality which purport to be the specimens upon which Hutton based the above brief description. All three valves, however, appear to be dorsal valves, and the apparent absence of radiating lines on two of them is due in one case to attrition on the sea-bottom and in the other to an encrusting organism. There is also in the Museum another tablet of seven valves- which are those mentioned by Hamilton as '' Trail ; Whangaroa, Cook Strait."' Of these seven, the two smallest are the young of Anomia sp., but the other five are dorsal valves of the same species of Crania as Hutton's specimens. In view of the locality record attaching to the latter specimens, the best preserved of these is chosen as the holotype. (Thomson, 1916, p. 41).

    Novocrania philippinensis  (Dall, 1920)

    Type locality: "Between Masbate and Leyte Islands, Philippines, in 114 fathoms, green mud, at Bureau of Fisheries station 5398."
    Depth range: 43 - 316 m.

    Crania philippinensis Dall, 1920, p. 272
    Novocrania philippinensis: Lee & Brunton, 2001, p. 5
    Crania californica Berry, 1921, p. 210
    Novocrania californica: Lee & Brunton, 2001, p. 5

    Diagnosis of Robinson (2017)

    Dorsal valve exterior smooth to hummocky to minutely spinose, anterior adductor muscle scars and support structure scars commonly on raised pedestals, support structure scars commonly placed at lateral tip of anterior adductor muscle scars making the latter scars appear elongated, small anterior muscles attached to median process, ventral valve calcitic and punctate, rostellum calcitic with small anterior muscle scars on rounded tip.