Sous-embranchement (subphylum) des Linguliformea
Classe des Lingulata
Ordre des Lingulida
Super-famille des Linguloidea
Famille des Lingulidae

Genus Lingularia Biernat & Emig, 1993
[Type-species = L. similis]   -   see figure below that belongs to the diagnoses of the species
Shell elongate oval in outline, lateral margins subparallel, anterior margin broadly rounded. Valves weakly to strongly convex.
Ventral valve with triangular umbo formed by vestigial to small internal propareas, continuous with posterolateral margins and separated by deep pedicle groove; pair of narrow subparallel, V-shaped, grooves extends internally from the anterior adductor pair to posterior adductor where grooves join.
Dorsal valve with posterior margin rounded, narrow median beak sometimes present, and a narrow internal central ridge extending over about 1 millimetre posterior to anterior oblique muscle scars.

Posterior adductor scar heart-like in outline.
Main ventral canals (vascula lateralia) shorter than dorsal canals.


Occurrences: Carboniferous: Scotland, S Wales. Triassic: Bear Island, N Spain, N Siberia, West Pakistan, ? Japan, N USA, N Italy, New-Zealand. Triassic, Jurassic: Spitsbergen. Cretaceous: W Kazakhstan Egypt, SW Australia.

Diagnosis from Biernat & Emig (1993) with complete description.

NOTA: The diagnosis given in the Treatise (vol. 2, p. 36) does not correspond to this original one - see Emig (2003), as well as the geological range. There is no reference indicating a possible extension in the Tertiary as suggested in the Treatise

Species of Lingularia

  • L. similis  Biernat et Emig, 1993
  • L. siberica Biernat et Emig, 1993
  • L. smirnovae  Biernat et Emig, 1993
  • L. michailovae  Smirnova et Ushatinskaya, 2001
  • L. sp  Hori et Campbell, 2004
  • L. notialis  Holmer et Bergston, 2009
  • L. ex gr. tenuissima  (Bronn, 1837)
  • L. salymica  Smirnova, 2015, in Smirnova et al., 2015.
  • --------------

    ? Lingula mytilloides Sowerby, L. elliptica Phillips and L. parallela Phillips
    ? L. straeleni Demanet
    ? L. lumsdeni Graham
    ? L. squamiformis Phillips
    ? L. aoraki Campbell, 1987

    The references of this page are:

    • Biernat G. & C. C. Emig, 1993. Anatomical distinctions of the Mesozoic lingulide brachiopods. Acta Palaeont. Pol., 38 (1/2), 1-20.

    • Holmer L.E. & Bengston P., 2009. The first occurrence of a lingulid brachiopod from the Cretaceous of Sergipe, Brazil, with a restudy of 'Lingula' bagualensis Wilckens, 1905 from Southern Patagonia. Paläontogische Zeitschrift, 83, 255-266.

    • Hori R.S. & Campbell H.J., 2000. Lingularia sp. (Brachiopoda) from Middle Triassic bedded chert in Shikoku, Japan Journal of the Geological Society of Japan, 110 (12), 758-764.

    • Márquez-Aliaga A., Emig C.C. & Brito J.M., 1999. Triassic lingulide brachiopods from the Iberian Range (Spain). [Brachiopodes ]ingulides du Trias de la Cordillère Ibérique (Espagne)]. Geobios, 32 (6), 815-821.

    • Márquez-Aliaga A., Emig C. C. & J. López-Gómez, 2007. Triassic Lingularia (Brachiopoda) from Moya (SE Iberian Ranges, Spain). XXIIIa Jornadas de Paleontología, Caravaca de la Cruz, Murcia, 2007, Résumen, 2 p.

    • Smirnova T. N. & G. T. Ushatinskaya, 2001. New lingulids (Brachiopoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of European Russia, with notes in the microstructure of their shells. Paleont. J., 35 (4), 387-395.

    • Sykora M., Siblík M. & J. Soták, 2011. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krízna Unit (Malá Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin. Geologica Carpathica, 62 (2), 121-138.

    • Smirnova T.N., Ushatinskaya G.T., Zhegallo E.A. & Panchenk I.V., 2015. Lingularia Biernat et Emig, 1993 from the Upper Jurassic of western Siberia: Larval and embryonic shells and shell microstructure [in Russian]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 2015 (2), 18–26.

    Lingularia similis Biernat & Emig, 1993

    Lingula borealis Bittner, 1899; Newell & Kummel, 1942.
    Lingula sp. ind. Birkenmajer & Pugaczewska, 1975.
    ? Lingula aff. arctica Wittenburg, 1910; Dagys, 1965.
    Lingula cf. beani Phillips, 1829; Bäckström and Nagy, 1985.

    Holotype: ZPAL Bp.XXIV/385. Type locality: Wimanfjellet (between Janusfjellet and Botneheia), Sassenfjorden area, Central Spitsbergen. Type horizon: Brentskardhaugen bed (phosphorite nodules), Jurassic, Toarcian/Aalenian (Wierzbowski et al., 1981).
    Etymology: "similis" relates to its similar appearance to Lingula.

    Diagnosis - (Biernat & Emig, 1993)
    including the figures

    Umbonal region rounded with median beak weak on dorsal valve, pointed on ventral valve; large propareas separated by deep pedicle groove, not continuous with internal valve face.
    Body muscles characterized by internal median oblique narrowing in the anterior third; internal anterior oblique scar tear-drop shaped, located near anterior oblique; and internal posterior oblique scar weak and tear-drop shaped, extending to near the posterior adductor.
    Mantle canals with strong S-shaped, curves on both sides.


    L. similis

    Lingularia siberica Biernat & Emig, 1993

    Lingula polaris Lundgren, 1883; Dagys, 1965.
    ?Lingula polariformis ex. aff. polaris Wurm, 1911.
    ?Lingula olenekensis Dagys, 1965.

    Holotype: ZPAL Bp.XXIV/3. Type locality: Olenek River, Northern Siberia (see Dagys, 1965, p. 12). Type horizon: Middle Triassic, Anisian.
    Etymology: Siberica because the specimens previously referred to polaris were collected in the northern part of Siberia.

    Diagnosis - (Biernat & Emig, 1993)
    including the figures

    Numerous fine radial striae and commonly concentric microlines between thicker growth lines generally visible on the shell. Umbonal region rounded on dorsal valve, pointed on ventral valve; small propareas separated by a deep and wide striated pedicle groove, not continuous with internal valve face.

    Body muscles characterized by internal anterior oblique located near anterior oblique; internal posterior oblique not observed.

    Mantle canals almost straight, convergent.



    L. siberica

    Lingularia smirnovae Biernat & Emig, 1993

    ?Lingularia michailovae Smirnova & Ushatinskaya, 2001.
    Lingularia cf. smirnovae Márquez-Aliaga et al., 1999; Márquez-Aliaga et al., 2007.

    Holotype: ZPAL Bp.XXIV/14. Type locality: W Kazakhstan, Mangyshlak Peninsula, SW Karatau Mountains. Type horizon: Cretaceous, Albian.
    Etymology: The name of this species is dedicated to Tatiana Smirnova (Department of Paleobiology, State University of Moscow) who kindly provided us with a large collection.

    Diagnosis - (Biernat & Emig, 1993)
    including the figures

    Umbonal region rounded with weak median beak on dorsal valve, pointed on ventral valve; small propareas separated by deep and narrow pedicle groove, not continuous with internal valve face.
    Body muscles characterized by small internal anterior oblique located near anterior oblique and above internal posterior oblique, posterior adductor more developed on right part of ventral side and on left of dorsal.
    Dorsal mantle canals strongly S-like (not observed on ventral side).





    L. smirnovae

    Lingularia michailovae Smirnova & Ushatinskaya, 2001

    Holotype: PIN 4796/12. Type locality: Sengilei, Ul'yanovk region. Type horizon: Lower Aptien, Lower Cretaceous.
    Etymology: in honor of the paleontologist Irina A. Michailova.

    Diagnosis - (Smirnova & Ushatinskaya, 2001)   see figure (modified after fig. 2 of Smirnova & Ushatinskaya, 2001)

    Shell small, up to 5 mm long, weakly uniformly biconvex, regularly oval in outline. Umbo rounded. Gently rounded lateral margins, grade into the anterior margin, posterior margin long, strongly curved, well defined from the other part of the shell. The greatest width is attained in posterior third.of the shell.

    According to Smirnova & Ushatinskaya (2001): "the new species is distinct from Lingularia smirnovae Biernat & Emig, 1993 in its regularly oval shell outline, smaller size, rounded lateral commissures, location of greatest width, and narrower anterior margin. It is distinct from L similis Biernat & Emig, 1993 in its smaller size, rounded lateral margins, location of greatest width and thickness of the shell, and narrow pseudointerarea."

    NOTA: all the above cited characters to distinguish species have been demontsrated as no-taxonomic characters by Biernat & Emig (1993). On the other hand, the muscle arrangement of this species and those of Lingularia smirnovae(see figures) appear rather similar.



    L. michailovae

    Lingularia? notialis Holmer et Bengston, 2009

    Lingularia? bagualensis (Wilckens, 1907).
    Glottidia sp. Cusack et al., 1990.
    Glottidia sp. Williams et al., 2000.

    Holotype: MN 8283-I . Type locality: Oiteiro, Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Type horizon: upper Turonian of the Cotinguiba Formation.
    Etymology: : Latin notialis (''southern''), after the occurrence in South America.

    Diagnosis and figures (from Holmer & Bengston, 2009)

    Ventral pseudointerarea wide with small propareas separated by a wide and deep pedicle groove, level with valve floor; ventral umbonal muscle scars not bisected by groove of pedicle nerve. Dorsal pseudointerarea poorly defined, forming short, slightly thickened, crescent-shaped rim; dorsal umbonal muscle scar possibly double. Mantle canals of both valves narrow. Both valves with large lophophoral cavity occupying more than half of total valve width. Shell structure baculate.

    Lingularia sp. Hori et Campbell, 2004

    'Lingula sp.' Bragin,1991.
    Lingularia aff. lindstromi Yanagita et al., 1995.
    Lingula sp. Murata, 1973.

    Holotype: . Type locality: Shikoku, Japan . Type horizon: Anisian (early Middle Triassic).

    Lingularia ex gr. tenuissima (Bronn, 1837)

    Proposed by Sykora et al. (2011) - no taxonomic characters, no diagnosis - just based on a discussion.

    Lingularia salymica Smirvova, 2015, in Smirnova et al., 2015

    Occurrence: West Siberia, Shirotnoe Priob’e; Upper Jurassic, transitional layers between the Abalak and Bazhenov formations.

    Holotype: PIN 4898/4140, ventral valve interior. Type locality: West Siberia, Shirotnoe Priob’e. Type horizon: Upper Jurassic, transitional beds between the Abalak and Bazhenov formations.
    Etymology: From the Salym River in the Shirotnoe Priob’e area, West Siberia.

    Diagnosis : no diagnosis available
    Figures from Smirnova (2015)

    The comparison with other species of Lingularia is based characters well known to have no taxonomic value:
    "The new species differs from L. smirnovae Biernat et Emig, 1993 and L. similis Biernat et Emig, 1993 in the considerably smaller (almost three times), regularly oval, wider shell with rounded lateral margins. It differs from L. michailovae Smirnova, 2001 in the regularly oval shell, maximum width located in the middle of the shell, considerably larger apical angle, rounded umbo, and impunctate shell fabric." (Smirnova et al., 2015)


    Lingulide muscle arrangement