References on Phoronida > 2000 - 2009


Dernier changement - Last update - Último cambio : 13 September 2017


2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009


Marine Journals   -   Palaeontological Journals   -   e-Library  -   Phoronida Database



Altenburger A. & Wanninger A., 2009. Comparative larval myogenesis and adult myoanatomy of the rhynchonelliform (articulate) brachiopods Argyrotheca cordata, A. cistellula, and Terebratalia transversa. Frontiers in Zoology, 6 (3).

Balthasar U. & Butterfield N.J., 2009. Early Cambrian "soft-shelled" brachiopods as possible stem-group phoronids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54 (2), 307-314.

Balthasar U., Skovsted C. B., Holmer L. E. & Brock G. A., 2009. Homologous skeletal secretion in tommotiids and brachiopods. Geology, 37 (12), 1143-1146.

Emig C. C., 2009. Chapter IV. Taxonomic groups. Part 33 Phoronids. In: Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Wehrtmann I. S. & J. Cortés (eds.). Monographiae Biologicae, 86, p. 409-411 et CD-Species List 33.1 et 33.2, p. 383-384. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 538 p. & CD-Rom 500 p. - available in pdf on request

Emig C. C., 2009. Phoronida. Also available in: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2009 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM restricted to Microsoft Windows; Species 2000: Reading, UK.

Gordon D. P., 2009. Phoronida. In: Gordon D. (Ed.), New Zealand inventory of biodiversity, kingdom Animalia, Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, and Deuterostomia, Vol. 1, 268-270. Canterbury Press, Christchurch, 584 p.

Gruhl A., Wegener I. & Bartolomaeus T., 2009. Ultrastructure of the body cavities in Phylactolaemata (Bryozoa). Journal of Morphology, 270 (3), 306-318.

Gül M., Özbek A., Kurt M. A. & Zorlu K., 2009. Controlling factors of recent clastic coastal sediments (Viransehir, Mersin bay, S Turkey). Environmental Geology, 57 (4), 809-822.

Handbook of alien species in Europe, 2009. Invading nature - Springer series in invasion ecology, Volume 3, 400 p. [see comments on Phoronida, p. 221]

Hejnol A., M. Obst, A. Stamatakis, M. Ott, G. W. Rouse, G. D. Edgecombe, P. Martinez, J. Baguña, X. Bailly, U. Jondelius, M. Wiens, W. E. G. Müller, E. Seaver, W. C. Wheeler, M. Q. Martindale, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn, 2009. Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods. Proc. R. Soc. B, 276, 4261-4270.

Jang K. H. & U. W. Hwang, 2009. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata): phylogenetic position of Bryozoa and phylogeny of lophophorates within the Lophotrochozoa. BMC Genomics, 10, 167 - doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-167

Larson A. A. & Stachowicz J. J., 2009. Chemical defense of a soft-sediment dwelling phoronid against local epibenthic predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 374, 101-111.

Larson A. A., Stachowicz J. J. & Hentschel B. T., 2009. The effect of a tube-building phoronid on associated infaunal species diversity, composition and community structure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, 381 (2), 126-135.

Paps J., Baguña J. & M. Riutort, 2009. Lophotrochozoa internal phylogeny: new insights from an up-to-date analysis of nuclear ribosomal genes. Proc. R. Soc. B, 276, 1245-1254.

Riesgo A. & M. Maldonado, 2009. An unexpectedly sophisticated, V-shaped spermatozoon in Demospongiae (Porifera): reproductive and evolutionary implications. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 97 (2), 413-426.

Santagata S., 2009. Phoronida of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Gulf of Mexico origin, waters, and biota. Texas A&M Univ. Press, p. 1133-1135.

Santagata S. & B. L. Cohen, 2009. Phoronid phylogenetics (Brachiopoda; Phoronata): evidence from morphological cladistics, small and large subunit rDNA sequences, and mitochondrial cox1. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157, 34-50.

Sarthou J. C., 2009. Developmental biology of Phoronopsis harmeri.

Sun M., Z. Wu, X. Shen, J. Ren, X. Lui, H. Liu & B. Lui, 2009. The complete mitochondrial genome of Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata) with phylogenetic consideration of Bryozoa. Gene, 439 (1-2), 17-24.

Sundberg P., Chernyshev A., Kajihara H., Kaanneby T. & Strand M., 2009. Character-matrix based descriptions of two new nemertean (Nemertea). Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 157 (2), 264-294.

Temereva E. N., 2009. New data on distribution, morphology and taxonomy of phoronid larvae (Lophophorata: Phoronida). Invertebrate Zoology, 6 (1), 47-64.

Temereva E. N., & V. V. Malakhov, 2009. Microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the nervous system of Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 (Lophophorata: Phoronida). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 35 (5), 388-404.

Temereva E. N., & V. V. Malakhov, 2009. On the organization of the lophophore in phoronids (Lophophorata: Phoronida). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 35 (6), 479–489.

This paper is not dealing with Phoronida but worth to be read about the scientific weakness of the publications:
    Lévy-Leblond Jean-Marc, Université de Nice, 2007. (Ri)mettere la scienza in cultura. Dalla crisi epistemologica all'esigenza etica. Seminario "Marcello Carapezza", Palermo, Cnr, 26 mars 2007.  
    Lévy-Leblond J. M., 2008. (Re)mettre la science en culture. De la crise épistémologique à l'exigence éthique. Le courrier de l'environnement de l'INRA, 56, 5-16.  


Aviles F. B., 2008. Description of three new parasitic worms associated with abalone species cultured in Chile and with native molluscs. 100th Annual Meeting, Providence, Rhode Island, Abstracts of technical papers, p. 987.

Bay-Nouailhat A., 2008. Description de Phoronis hippocrepia, [En ligne], consultée le 15 février 2014.    

Bourlat S. J., Nielsen C., Economou A. D. & Telford M. J., 2008. Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, in press - preprint online.

Çinar M.E., T. Katagan, F. Koçak, B. Öztürk, Z. Ergen, A. Kocatas, M. Önen, F. Kirkim, K. Bakir, G. Kurt, E. Dagli, S. Açik, A. Dogan & T. Özcan, 2008. Faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in and around Alsancak Harbour (Izmir Bay, eastern Mediterranean) with special emphasis on alien species. Journal of Marine Systems, 71, 1-17.

Cohen B. L., Long S. L. & Saito M., 2008. Living craniids: preliminary molecular evidence of their inter-relationships. Fossils and Strata, 54, 283-287.
 >>  Remember that Phoronopsis viridis is a synonym of Phoronopsis harmeri.

Colgan D.J., Hutchings P. A. & Beacham E., 2008. Multi-Gene analyses of the phylogenetic relationships among the Mollusca, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Zool. Stud., 47 (3), 338-351.

Dunn C. W., Hejnol A. Matus D. Q., Pang Kevin., BrowneWilliam E., Smith Stephen A., Seaver E., Rouse G. W., Obst M., Edgecombe G. D., Soerensen M. V., Haddock S. H., Schmidt-Rhaesa A., Okusu A., Kristensen R. M., Wheeler W. C., Martindale M. Q. & Giribet G., 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature, 452 (7188), 745-749.
 >>  Note on Fig. 1 - the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa is not a lingula, as represented - more -, and Phoronis vancouverensis is a synonym of P. ijimai.

Fukunaga A. & Bailey-Brock J. H., 2008. Benthic infaunal communities around two artificial reefs in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Marine Environmental Research, 65 (3), 250-263.

Gamito S., 2008. Three main stressors acting on the Ria Formosa lagoonal system (Southern Portugal): Physical stress, organic matter pollution and the land-ocean gradient. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 77 (4), 710-720.

Gül M., A. Özbek, F. Karayakar & M. A. Kurt, 2008. Biodegradation effects over different types of coastal rocks. Environmental Geology, 55 (7), 1601-1611.

Helmkampf M., Bruchhaus I.& B. Hausdorf, 2008. Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46 (1), 206-214.

Helmkampf M., Bruchhaus I. & Hausdorf B., 2008. Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept. Proc. R. Soc. B, 275, 1927-1933.

Hyland J. L., Balthis W. P., Posey M., Hackney C. T. & Alphin T., 2008. Correction to The Soft-bottom Macrobenthos of North Carolina Estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts, 29 (4), 709-710.

Iyer P. & Roughgarden J., 2008. Dioecy as a specialization promoting sperm delivery. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 10 (6), 867-892.

Sato A., Rickards B. & Holland P. W., 2008. The origins of graptolites and other pterobranchs: a journey from 'Polyzoa'. Lethaia, 41 (4), 303-316.

Skovsted C. B., G. A. Brock, J. R. Paterson, L. E. Holmer & G. E. Budd, 2008. The scleritome of Eccentrotheca from the Lower Cambrian of South Australia: Lophophorate affinities and implications for tommotiid phylogeny. Geology, 36 (2), 171-174.

Taylor P. D. & M. A. Wilson, 2008. Morphology and affinities of hederelloid "bryozoans". Proc. 14th intern. Bryoz. Ass. Conf., Boone (USA) 2007. Virginia Mus. nat. Hist. Publ., Sp. Publ. 15, 301-309.

Temereva E. N., 2008. Phoronida : structure, developpement, distribution, phylogenèse [en russe]. Thèse Doctorale, Univ. Lomonosov, Moscou, 48 p.

Yokobori S., Iseto T., Asakawa S., Sasaki T., Shimizu N., Yamagishi A., Oshima T. & E. Hirose, 2008. Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genomes of two solitary entoprocts, Loxocorone allax and Loxosomella aloxiata: Implications for lophotrochozoan phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47 (2), 612-628.

Wanninger A., 2008. Comparative lophotrochozoan neurogenesis and larval neuroanatomy: Recent advances from previously neglected taxa. Acta Biologica Hungarica, 59, 127-136.

This paper is not dealing with Phoronida but worth to be read about consequences of false identification:
Bortolus A., 2008. Error cascades in the bological sciences: the unwanted consequences of using bad taxonomy in ecology. Ambio , 37 (2), 114-118.


Ávila-de Tabarés G., Martínez-Ramírez O. & Franco-Herrera A., 2007. Larvas planctónicas de lofoforados en la bahía de Gaira, Magdalena, Caribe colombiano. Boletin de investigaciones marinas y costeras, 36, 327-332.

Avilés F., Rozbaczylo N., Godoy M. & Muñoz G., 2007. The first report of Phoronis sp. (Phoronida) in Red Abalone (Haliotis rufescens) in Chile. Journal of Shellfish Research, 26 (3), 859-861.

Emig C. C., 2007. Phoronida of New Caledonia. In : Compendium of marine species from New Caledonia, Payri C. & B. Richer de Forges (eds). Documents Scientifiques et Techniques, II 7, 2e Edition, p. 173 (volume spécial, IRD Nouméa).    

Emig C. C. [Contributor], 2007. Superphylum Lophophorata (invertebrates): "all" 405 extant species. The Taxonomicon & Systema Naturae 2000, - only from 2004 to 2007 .

Emig C. C. & J. R. Marsden, 2007. Phoronida. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 10th Edition, p. 369-371..

Freeman G., 2007. A developmental basis for the Cambrian radiation. Zoological Science, 24 (2), 113-122.

Grobe P. & T. Bartolomaeus, 2007. The coelomic origin and phylogenetic affinities of the Phoronida. 100. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft (Köln, 2007), Abstract, p, 38.    

Herringshaw L. G., Thomas A. T. & M. P. Smith, 2007. Systematics, shell structure and affinities of the Palaeozoic Problematicum Cornulites. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150, 681-699.

Keamrnerer H., 2007. A brief examination of the development of Phoronis sp. dspace/bitstream/1794/5335/1/Embryology005.pdf.    

Kieneke A., P. Martínez Arbizu & W. H. Ahlrichs, 2007. Ultrastructure of the protonephridial system in Neodasys chaetonotoideus (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotida) and in the ground pattern of Gastrotricha. Journal of Morphology, 268 (7), 602-613.

Kuzmina T. V. & V. V. Malakhov, 2007. Structure of the brachiopod lophophore [in Russian]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 41 (5), 520-536.

Li G., Steiner M., Zhu X., Yang A., Wang H. & B. D. Erdtmann, 2007. Early Cambrian metazoan fossil record of South China: Generic diversity and radiation patterns. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 254, 229-249.

Murugesan P., Khan S. A. & Ajithkumar A. T. T.>, 2007. Temporal changes in the benthic community structure of the marine zone of Vellar estuary southeast coast of India. Journal of the marine biological Association of India, 49 (2), 154-158.

Rehm P. & E. Rachor, 2007. Benthic macrofauna communities of the submersed Pleistocene Elbe valley in the southern North Sea. Helgol. Mar. Res., 61, 127-134.
    For Phoronis spp., several species are possible: probably P. psammophila or perhaps P. muelleri or P. pallida, all recorded in soft substrates of the German Bight.

Riisgaard H. U. & Nielsen C., 2007. Feeding mechanism of the polychaete Sabellaria alveolata revisited: comment on Dubois et al. (2005). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 328, 295-305.

Simoninia R., I. Ansalonia, P. Boninia, V. Grandia, F. Graziosia, M. Iottia, G. Massamba-N’Sialaa, M. Mauria, G. Montanarib, M. Pretic, N. De Nigrisc & D. Prevedellia, 2007. Recolonization and recovery dynamics of the macrozoobenthos after sand extraction in relict sand bottoms of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Environmental Research, 64 (5), 574-589.

Temereva E. N. & V. A. Kulikova , 2007. Larvae of phoronids from the Terpeniya Bay (Southeastern Sakhalin) [in Russian] . Biol. Morya, 33 (1), 65-69.

Temereva E. N. & Malakhov V. V. , 2007. Embryogenesis and larval development of Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 (Phoronida): dual origin of the coelomic mesoderm. Invertebrate reproduction and development, 50 (2), 57-66.

Turbeville J.M. & D. M. Smith , 2007. The partial mitochondrial genome of the Cephalothrix rufifrons (Nemertea, Palaeonemertea): Characterization and implications for the phylogenetic position of Nemertea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43 (3), 1056-1065.

Vinn O. & M. Isakar, 2007. The tentaculitid affinities of Anticalyptraea from the Silurian of Baltoscandia. Palaeontology, 50 (6), 1385-1390.

Zimmer R. L., 2007. Phylum Phoronida. Phylum Brachiopoda. In: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. Univ. California Press, The Light and Smith Manual, 4th ed. p. 860-863.

Zimmer R. L., 2007. Phoronids. In: Encyclopedia of tidepools and rocky shores, Univ. California Press, p. 424-425.


Ballerstedt S., 2006. Phoronis hippocrepia. A horseshoe worm. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Belan T. A. & A. V. Moshchenko, 2006. Near-bottom environmental conditions and state of benthos at the inner part of Amursky Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Japan/East Sea). PICES XV, Book of Abstracts (Posters), p. 189.    

Bishop C. D. et al., 2006. What is metamorphosis? Integrative and comparative Biology, 46 (6), 655-661.

Bromley R., 2006. Preliminary study of bioerosion in the deep-water coral Lophelia, Pleistocene, Rhodes, Greece. In: Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. Earth and Environmental Science, p. 895-914.

Brunton H., 2006. Recensiones bibliográficas / Book reviews [in English]: Fauna Ibérica, Vol. 27. Lophophorata. Phoronida, Brachiopoda. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. 276 pp. Madrid, 2005. Graellsia, 62 (2), 295.    

Cardigos F., Tempera F., Ávila S., Gonçalves J., Colaço A. & Santos R.S., 2006. Non-indigenous marine species of the Azores. Helgol. Mar. Res., 60 (2), 160-169.
 >>  The authors missed Phoronis muelleri - according to the Atlantic distribution of the four species known in the Azores, difficult to considered that they are non-indigenous!

Çinar M. E., T. Katagan, B. Öztürk, Ö. Egemen, Z. Ergen, A. Kocatas, M. Önen, F. Kirkim, K. Bakir, G. Kurt, E. Dagli, A. Kaymakçi, S. Açik, A. Dogan & T. Özcan, 2006. Temporal changes of soft-bottom zoobenthic communities in and around Alsancak Harbor (Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea), with special attention to the autecology of exotic species. Marine Ecology, 27, 229-246.

Conway Morris S., 2006. Darwin’s dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian ‘explosion’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Ser. B, 316, 1069–1083.

Costello M. J., Bouchet P., Emblow C. S. & Legakis A., 2006. European marine biodiversity inventory and taxonomic resources: state of the art and gaps in knowledge. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 316, 257-268.    

Emig C. C., 2006. Phoronida of New Caledonia. In: Compendium of marine species from New Caledonia, Payri C. & B. Richer de Forges (eds). Documents Scientifiques et Techniques, II 7, p. 171 (1e Éditionvolume spécial, IRD Nouméa).    

Emig C. C., 2006. Phoronida, Brachiopoda. Checklist della Fauna Marina Italiana, fasc. 108.    

Fuchs J., M. Bright, P. Funch & A. Wanninger, 2006. Immunocytochemistry of the neuromuscular systems of Loxosomella vivipara and L. parguerensis (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae). Journal of Morphology, 267 (7), 866-883.

Gamito S., 2006.Benthic ecology of semi-natural coastal lagoons, in the Ria Formosa (Southern Portugal), exposed to different water renewal regimes. Hydrobiologia, 555,75-87.

Halamski A. T. & M. K. Zapalski, 2006. Les schistes à brachiopodes de Skaly : un niveau exceptionnel. Première partie : inventaire faunistique. Compte rendu de la conférence du 9 décembre 2004. Bull. mens. Soc. linn. Lyon, 75 (3), 145-150.

Huang D.-Y., 2006. The early body plan, origin and evolutionary radiation of Priapulida. In: Rong J. et al., Eds. Originations, radiations and biodiversity changes - evidences from the Chinese fossil record. Science Press, Beijing, p. 125-137 [962 p.]

Hyland J. L., Balthis W. P., Posey M., Hackney C. T. & Alphin T., 2006. The soft-bottom macrobenthos of North Carolina estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts, 27, 501-514.

Jenner R. A., 2006. Challenging received wisdoms: Some contributions of the new microscopy to the new animal phylogeny. Integr. Comp. Biol., 46 (2), 93-103.

Larink O. & W. Westheide, 2006. Coastal Plankton - Photo Guide for European Seas. Pfeil-Verlag, München, 143 pp.    see Phoronida : p. 106-107.    

Parras A. & Casadío S., 2006. The oyster Crassostrea? hatcheri (Ortmann, 1897), a physical ecosystem engineer from the Upper Oligocene - Lower Miocene of Patagonia, southern Argentina. Palaios, 21 (2), 168-186.

Passamaneck Y. & K. M. Halanych, 2006. Lophotrochozoan phylogeny assessed with LSU and SSU data: Evidence of lophophorate polyphyly. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40 (1), 20-28.

Sour-Tovar F., 2006. Reseña: Fauna Ibérica, volumen 27. Lophophorata: Phoronida, Brachiopoda F. Álvarez M., Ch. C. Emig, C. Roldán C. y J. M. Vièitez M. 2006. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid. 276 p. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 77 (2), 311-312.   

Strathman R. R., 2006. Versatile ciliary behaviour in capture of particles by the bryozoan cyphonautes larva. Acta zoologica (Stockholm) , 87 (1), 83-89.

Taylor P. D. & O. Vinn, 2006. Convergent morphology in small spiral worm tubes ('Spirorbis') and its palaeoenvironmental implications. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 163 (2), 225-228.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2006. Microscopical anatomy and ultrastructure of the Lophophoral organs and adjacent epitheliums of the lophophoral concavity and anal papilla of Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 (Lophophorata, Phoronida) [in Russian]. Biol. Morya, 32 (6), 402-414.

Temereva E. N. & V.V. Malakhov, 2006. The answer to Thomas Bartolomaeus: “Larva of phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 has trimeric coelom organization” [in Russian]. Invertebrate Zoology, 3 (1), 1-21.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2006. Trimeric coelom organization in the larvae of Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 (Phoronida, Lophophorata) [in Russian]. Doklady Akademii Nauk, 410 (3), 425–429.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2006. Development of excretory organs in Phoronopsis harmeri (Phoronida): From protonephridium to nephromixium [in Russian]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 85 (8), 201-209.

Temereva E. N., V. V. Malakhov & A. V. Chernyshev, 2006. Giant actinotroch, a larva of Phoronida from the South China Sea: The giant larva phenomenon [in Russian]. Doklady Akademii Nauk, 410 (5), 712–715.
 >>  It would be interesting to compare this large actinotroch with thoses described and figured by Selys-Longchamps (1904, 1907) in particular Actinotrocha branchiata which large size is related to the absence of suitable bottom for settlement.

Templado J., Calvo M., Moreno D., Flores A., Conde F., Abad R., Rubio J., López-Fé C. M. & M. Ortiz, 2006. Flora y Fauna de la reserva marina y reserva de pesca de la Isla de Alborán. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Secretaría General de Pesca Marítima, Madrid, 269 pp.

Turner J. & Tibbetts PJC., 2006. Chemical and macrobenthic monitoring in Sullom Voe sediments. Shetland Oil Terminal Advisory Group, Aberdeen (UK), 116 pp.

Vallès Y. & J. L. Boore, 2006. Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 46 (4), 544-557.

Vinn O., 2006. Two new microconchid (Tentaculita Boucek, 1964) genera from the Early Palaeozoic of Baltoscandia and England. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 240 (2), 89-100.

Waeschenbach A., M. J. Telford, J. S. Porter & D. T. J. Littlewood, 2006. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40 (1), 195-207.


Álvarez F., Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Lophophorata: Phoronida, Brachiopoda. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, 273 pp.        Address to order

Bromley R., 2005. Preliminary study of bioerosion in the deep-water coral Lophelia, Pleistocene, Rhodes, Greece. In: Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. Earth and Environmental Science, p. 895-914.

    Emig C. C. & C. Roldán, 2005. Introducción general y filogenia de los Lofoforados. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 11-18 & 177-180.

    Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 19-56 & 180-186 & 223-224.

    Alonso Zarazaga M. A., 2005. Apéndice 1. Nomenclatura: Lista de sinónimos y combinaciones Filo Phoronida. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 209-213. This is an example of the strict application of the Code by a member of the International Commission of the Zooological Nomenclature, who has no zoological knowledge on the group Phoronida, and a basic lecture of the Code.
        >> see comments in Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Nota de los autores. In: Filo Phoronida. Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 54-56. &
        >> and in Systematics - Systématique - Sistemática.

    Álvarez F., Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2005. Apéndice 3. Claves de las especies de Phoronida y Brachiopoda íbéro-baleares. Phoronida, Brachiopoda. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 227-239.

    Álvarez F. & Roldán C., 2005. Apéndice 4. Glosario. In: Fauna Ibérica, vol. 27. Museo de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC Madrid, p. 241-246.

Carvalho S., Moura A., Gaspar M.B., Pereira P., Da Fonseca L. C., Falcao M., Drago T., Leitao F. & Regala, J., 2005. Spatial and inter-annual variability of the macrobenthic communities within a coastal lagoon (Obidos lagoon) and its relationship with environmental parameters. Acta Oecologica, 27 (3), 143-159.

Cohen B. L. & A. Weydmann, 2005. Molecular evidence that phoronids are a subtaxon of brachiopods (Brachiopoda: Phoronata) and that genetic divergence of metazoan phyla began long before the early Cambrian. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution, 5, 253-273

Gruhl A., Grobe P. & T. Bartolomaeus, 2005. Fine structure of the epistome in Phoronis ovalis: significance for the coelomic organization in Phoronida. Invertebr. Biol., 124 (4), 332-343.

Maggenti A. R. & S. Gardner, 2005. Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology: Complete Work. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2005.

Nielsen C., 2005. Trochophora larvae: cell-lineages, ciliary bands and body regions. 2. Other groups and general discussion. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 304B (5), 401-447.

Parada, 2005. Cartografía biosedimentaria y comunidades bentónicas de los fondos blandos submareales de las rías de Pontevedra y Aldán y la ensenada de A Lanzada. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (España), p.
 >>  Phoronis sp. han sido identificadas por J. M. Viéitez y C. Roldán como Phoronis muelleri y Phoronopsis harmeri.

Rosenberg R. & H.C. Nilsson, 2005. Deterioration of soft-bottom benthos along the Swedish Skagerrak coast. Journal of Sea Research, 54, 231-242.

Sokoloski W. P., 2005. Sedimentology and ichnology of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician Skolithos sandstone in the Deadwood Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota, and southeastern Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming. M. S. Degree in Geology, University of Toledo (USA), 220 p.   

Strathmann RR., 2005. Ciliary sieving and active ciliary response in capture of particles by suspension-feeding brachiopod larvae. Acta Zoologica, 86 (1), 41-54.

Vinn O., 2005. A new cornulitid genus from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. GFF, 127, 205-210

Vinn O. & Mutvei H., 2005. Observations on the morphology and affinities of cornulitids from the Ordovician of Anticosti Island and the Silurian of Gotland. Journal of Paleontology, 79, 726-737.

Wanninger A., D. Koop & B. M. Degnan, 2005. Immunocytochemistry and metamorphic fate of the larval nervous system of Triphyllozoon mucronatum (Ectoprocta: Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata). Zoomorphology,124, 161-170.

Zezina O. N. & S. N. Temereva, 2005. Brachiopoda and Phoronida. In: Biota of the Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, Ed. A. V. Adrianov, vol. 3, 138 p. Dalnauka, Vladivostock.


Anderson F. E., Córdoba A. J. & M. Thollesson, 2004. Bilaterian phylogeny based on analyses of a region of the sodium–potassium ATPase a-subunit gene. J. Mol. Evol., 58, 252-268.

Blanchet H., 2004. Structure et fonctionnement des peuplements benthiques du Bassin d'Arcachon. Thèse Docteur en océanographie, Univ. Bordeaux I, 228 p.

Bassett M.G., Popov L.E. & Holmer L.E., 2004. The oldest-known metazoan parasite? Journal of Paleontology, 78 (6), 1214-1216.

Bromley R. G., 2004. A stratigraphy of marine bioerosion. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 228, 155-479.

Chen J. Y., 2004. The dawn of the animal world [in Chinese]. Jiangsu Science and Technology Press, Nanjing, 366 p.

Dutrieux E., Jouvenel J. Y. & S. Thorin, 2004. Guide naturaliste des fonds sous-marins du Languedoc-Roussillon. Syndicat mixte d’aménagement touristique de la région Languedoc-Roussillon - CREOCEAN-2004, 170 p. -  

Glenner H., Hansen A.J., Soerensen M.V., Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J.P. & Willerslev E., 2004. Bayesian inference of the metazoan phylogeny: A combined molecular and morphological approach. Current Biology, 14 (18), 1644-1649.

Halanych K. M., 2004. The new view of animal phylogeny. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 35, 229-256.

Hall, K. A., Hutchings, P. A. & Colgan D. J., 2004. Further phylogenetic studies of the Polychaeta using 18S rDNA sequence data. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 84 (5), 949-960.

Helfenbein K. G. & J. L. Boore, 2004. The mitochondrial genome of Phoronis architecta - Comparisons demonstrate that phoronids are Lophotrochozoan protostomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21 (1), 153-157.  &  
  >>  See P. psammophila for synonymy

Jenner R. A., 2004. Libbie Henrietta Hyman (1888-1969): From developmental mechanics to the evolution of animal body plans. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 302B (5), 413-423.

Lagutenko Yu. P., 2004. Internal Apparatus of Neuropil in Coelomata: Reconstruction of the Earlier Stages of Its Evolution [in Russian]. Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 40 (6), 546-555.

Lüter C., 2004. Die Tentaculata im phylogenetischen System der Bilateria - gehören sie zu den Radialia oder den Lophotrochozoa? Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin (N.F.), 43, 103-122.

Malakhov V. V., 2004. New ideas on the origin of bilateral animals. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 30 (Suppl. 1), S22-S33.

Maslakova S. A., Martindale M. Q. & Norenburg J., 2004. Vestigial Prototroch in a Basal Nemertean, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Palaeonemertea). Evolution and Development, 6 (4), 219-226.

Mamkaev Yu. V., 2004. Evolutionary significance of morphogenetic mechanisms. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 30 (Suppl. 1), S34-S42.

Müller Y., 2004. Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. Commission régionale de bologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais, France. 307 p. [Phoronidiens p. 74]

Omel’yanenko V. A., V. A. Kulikova & A. G. Pogodin, 2004. The Meroplankton of Amurskii Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 30 (3), 159-174.

Passamaneck Y. P. & K. M. Halanych, 2004. Evidence from Hox genes that bryozoans are lophotrochozoans. Evolution & Development, 6 (4), 275-281.

Reitzel A. M., Miner B. G. & McEdward L. R., 2004.Relationships between spawning date and larval development time for benthic marine invertebrates: A modeling approach. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 280, 13-23.

Reunov A. & W. Klepal, 2004. Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophophorata, Phoronida). Helgoland Marine Research, 58 (1), 1-17.

Riisgård H. R.,, Nielsen K. K., Fuchs J., Rasmussen B. F., Obst M. & P. Funch 2004. Ciliary feeding structures and particle capture mechanism in the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella repens (Phylactolaemata). Invertebrate Biology, 123 (2), 156-167.

Ruppert E. E., Fox R. S. & Barnes R.B., 2004. Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Belmont: Brooks Cole Thomson, 928 pp.

Santagata S., 2004. Larval development of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida): Implications for morphological convergence and divergence among larval body plans. J. Morphol., 259, 347-358.

Santagata S., 2004. A waterborne behavioral cue for the actinotroch larva of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) produced by Upogebia pugettensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Biol. Bull., 207, 103-115.

Sotnikov O. S. & Yu. P. Lagutenko, 2004. About mechanisms of transformation of sensory neurons into associative neurons in the epidermal plexus and ganglia of Bilateria [in Russian]. Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 40 (4), 450-456.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. Ultrastructure of the blood system in the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912. 1. Capillaries [in Russian]. Biologia Morya, Vladisvostok, 30 (1), 46-53.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. Ultrastructure of the blood system in the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912. 2. The main vessels [in Russian]. Biologia Morya, Vladisvostok, 30 (2), 120-130.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. A key to the identification of phoronid larvae (Phoronida, Lophophorata) from the Sea of Japan [in Russian]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 83 (9), 1115-1126.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2004. Distinctive features of the microscopical anatomy and ultrastructure of the metanephridia Phoronopsis harmeri Pixell, 1912 (Phoronida, Lophophorata) [in Russian]. Invertebrate Zoology, 1 (1), 93-103.  &  

Wanninger A., 2004. Myo-anatomy of juvenile and adult loxosomatid entoprocta and the use of muscular body plans for phylogenetic inferences. J. Morphol., 261 (2), 249-257.

Zvyagintsev A. Yu., O. M. Korn & V. A. Kulikova, 2004. Seasonal dynamics of pelagic larvae and settling of the fouling organisms in conditions of thermal pollution. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 30 (4), 266-277.


Almeida W. O., Christoffersen M. L., de Souza Amorim D., Senna Garraffoni A. R. & G. Sene Silva, 2003. Polychaeta, Annelida, and Articulata are not monophyletic: articulating the Metameria (Metazoa, Coelomata). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 20 (1), 23-57.

Ax P., 2003. Multicellular animals - Order in nature : system made by man (translated from: Das System der Metozoa. III : ein Lehrbuch der phylofenetischen Systematik). Springer-Verlag. Vol. 3.

Balavoine G.& Adoutte A., 2003. The segmented urbilateria: A testable scenario. Integr. Comp. Biol., 43 (1), 137-147.

Belan T. A., 2003. Benthos abundance pattern and species composition in conditions of pollution in Amursky Bay (the Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46 (9), 1111-1119.

Belan T. A., Tkalin A. V. & T. S. Lishavskaya, 2003. The present status of bottom ecossystems of Peter the Geat Bay (the Sea of Japan). Pacific Oceanography, 1 (2), 158-167.

Cohen B. L., Holmer L. E. & C. Lüter, 2003. The brachiopod fold: a neglected body plan hypothesis. Palaeontology, 46 (1), 59-65.

Eldredge L. G. & N. L. Evenhuis, 2003. Hawaii's biodiversity: A detailed assessment of the numbers of species in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, Honolulu, 76, 28 pages.   

Emig C. C., 2003. Phylum Phoronida. In: Protostomes. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, (ed. 2) vol. 2, 491-497.

Emig C. C., 2003 (2000). Brachiopoda, Phoronida. Checklist of the Italian fauna on-line,

Emig C. C., Çinar M. E. & Z. Ergen, 2003. Phoronida from the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 44 (2), 185-190.

Freeman G., 2003. Regional specification during embryogenesis in Rhynchonelliform brachiopods. Developmental Biology, 261, 268-287.

Jenner R.A., 2003. Unleashing the force of cladistics? Metazoan phylogenetics and hypothesis testing. Integr. Comp. Biol., 43 (1), 207-218.

Martínez J. & I. Adarraga, 2003. Estructura y evolución temporal de los sedimentos y de las comunidades bentónicas afectadas por los vertidos de un colector de aguas residuales de San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa) (golfo de Vizcaya). Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., 19 (1-4), 345- 370.

Mierzejewski P. & C. Kulicki, 2003. Helicotubulus, a replacement name for Helicosyrinx Kozlowski, 1967 (?Phoronoidea) preoccupied by Helicosyrinx Baur, 1864 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Act. Palaeont. Pol., 48 (3), 446.   

Nielsen C., 2003. Proposing a solution to the Articulata-Ecdysozoa controversy. Zoologica Scripta, 32, 475-482.

Nielsen C., 2003. Defining phyla: morphological and molecular clues to metazoan evolution. Evolution & Development, 5 (4), 386-393.

Rieger R. M. & Ladurner P., 2003. The significance of muscle cells for the origin of mesoderm in bilateria. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43, 47-54.

Taylor P. D. & M. A. Wilson, 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews, 62 (1-2), 1-103.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2003. The organization and origin of the circulatory system of Phoronida (Lophophorata). Dokl. biol. Sci., 389, 166-168.

Wieking G. & I. Kröncke, 2003. Macrofauna communities of the Dogger Bank (central North Sea) in the late 1990s: spatial distribution, species composition and trophic structure. Helgol. Mar. Res., 57 (1), 34-46.

Wirtz P., 2003. New records of marine invertebrates from Saõ Tomé Island (Gulf of Guinea). J. Mar. Biol. Ass.U.K., 83 (4), 735-736.

Wirtz P. & H. Debelius, 2003. Phoronida. In: Mediterranean and Atlantic invertebrate guide. ConchBooks, Germany.
Cited species: Phoronis hippocrepia, Phoronis australis, Phoronopsis harmeri, Phoronopsis californica.


Backus B. T. & Banta W. C., 2002. NOR-Chromosome morphology and evidence for rDNA selection in phylactolaemates. Hydrobiologia, 482 (1-3), 89-95.

Breton G. & T. Vincent, 2002. La plongée subaquatique permet-elle d'évaluer de manière fiable la biodiversité de l'épibenthos dans un port ? Bull. Soc. zool. Fr., 127 (2), 83-94.

Coen R.,2002. Twenty years later: zooplankton of Pontini Lakes (Fogliano, Monaci and Caprolace). Biologia marina Mediterranea, 9 (1), 340-349.

Del Carmen Brito M., C. C. Emig, J. Núñez, R. Riera, C. Roldán & J. M. Viéitez, 2002. Nuevos registros de foronídeos en Lanzarote, islas Canarias (Lophophorata: Phoronida). Vieraea, 30, 153-159.

Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2002. European Register of Marine Species: Phoronida. Online at and in .

Fernandez-Pulpeiro E. & O. Reverter-Gil, 2002. Los foronídeos, braquiópodos y briozoos. Galicia Naturaleza, Hercules de Editiones, La Coruña, 38 (Zoología 2), 163-205.

Freeman G. & M. Q. Martindale, 2002. The origin of mesoderm in phoronids. Developmental Biology, 252, 301-311.

Garey, J.R., 2002. The lesser-known protostome taxa: an introduction and a tribute to Robert P. Higgins. Integr. Comp. Biol., 42 (3), 611-618.

Johnson K. B. & Zimmer R. L., 2002. Phylum Phoronida. In : Atlas of marine invertebrate larvae, C. Young, M. Rice & M. Sewell [Eds]. 626 pp. Academic Press, San Diego, San Francisco etc., p. 429-439.

Kinoshita K.Y., 2002. Burrow structure of the mud shrimp Upogebia major (Decapoda : Thalassinidea : Upogebiidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 22 (2), 474-480.

Lagutenko YuP., 2002. Early forms of the evolution of the basiepidermal nervous plexus of Bilateria as possible evidence of primary diversity of its initial state [in Russian]. Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 38 (3), 275-282.

Mallatt J. & C. J. Winchell, 2002. Testing the new animal phylogeny: First use of combined large-subunit and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences to classify the protostomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19 (3), 289-301.

Nielsen C., 2002. The phylogenetic position of Entoprocta, Ectoprocta, Phoronida, and Brachiopoda. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42 (3), 685-691.    

Orme C. D. L., Quicke D. L. J., J. M. Cook & A. Purvis, 2002. Body size does not predict species richness among the metazoan phyla. J. Evol. Biol., 15, 235-247.

Riisgård H. U., 2002. Methods of ciliary filter feeding in adult Phoronis muelleri (phylum Phoronida) and in its free-swimming actinotroch larva. Marine Biology, 141, 75-87.

Santagata S., 2002. Structure and metamorphic remodeling of the larval nervous system and musculature of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida). Evolution and Development, 4 (1), 28-42.

Santagata S. & R. L. Zimmer, 2002. Comparison of the neuromuscular systems among actinotroch larvae: systematic and evolutionary implications. Evolution and Development, 4 (1), 43-54.

Staver J. M. & R. R. Strathmann, 2002. Evolution of fast development of planktonic embryos to early swimming. Biol. Bull., 203, 58-69.

Stewart P. L., Kendrick P. A., Robinson T. L. & Lee K., 2002. Softbottom benthic communities in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. 1. 1999 survey: Distribution, relation to contamination, and comparison to previous studies. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2424, i-vii, 1-92.

Strathmann R. R., Staver J. M. & J. R. Hoffman, 2002. Risk and the evolution of cell-cycle durations of embryos. Evolution, 56 (4), 708-720.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2002. The intestine of phoronids has epitheliomuscular cells [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 386 (4), 570–573. - Translated in Dokl. biol. Sci., 386, 469–471.

Zrzavy J., 2002. Gastrotricha and Metazoan phylogeny. Zoologica Scripta, 32, (1), 61-81.


Bartolomaeus T., 2001. Ultrastructure and formation of the body cavity lining in Phoronis muelleri (Phoronida, Lophophorata). Zoomorphology, 120 (3), 135-148.

Bergen M., Weisberg S. B., Smith R. W., Cadien D. B., Dalkey A., Montagne D. E., Stull J. K., Velarde R. G. & J. A. Ranasinghe, 2001. Relationship between depth, sediment, latitude, and the structure of benthic infaunal assemblages on the mainland shelf of southern California. Mar. Biol., 138, 637-647.

Bett B. J., 2001. UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology. Continental Shelf Research, 21 (8-10), 917-956.   >>  See also P. muelleri

Breton G. & P. Breton, 2001. Flore et faune des ports de La Rochelle (Charente-Maritime). Bulletin de la Société géologique de Normandie et des Amis du Muséum du Havre, 87 (2-3), 87-91.

Collins A. G. & Valentine J. W., 2001. Defining Phyla: Evolutionary Pathways to Metazoan Body Plans. Evolution and Development, 3 (6), 432-442.

Emig C. C., Roldán & J. M. Viéitez, 2001. Phoronida. In: European Register of Marine Species, a check list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification, Costello M. J., Emblow C. & R. White (eds). Patrimoines Naturels, 50, 324-325.      -     Complete publication -      1 &  2

Guralnick R. P. & Lindberg D.R., 2001. Reconnecting cell and animal lineages: what do cell lineages tell us about the evolution and development of Spiralia? Evolution, 55 (8), 1501-1519.

Halanych K. M. & Passamaneck Y., 2001. A brief review of metazoan phylogeny and future prospects in hox-research. American Zoologist, 41 ( 3), 629-639.

Hong J. S. & J.-W. Yoo, 2001. A revisit on zonal macrobenthic communities in Chokchon tidal flat, Incheon, Korea, after the survey in 1986. J. Korean Soc. Oceanography, 36 (3), 83-92.

Johnson K. B., 2001. Phoronida. In : An identification guide to the larval marine invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Shanks A. L. [Eds]. 314 pp. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, p. 251-257.

Peterson K. J. & D. J. Eernisse, 2001. Animal phylogeny and the ancestry of bilaterians: inferences from morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequences. Evolution & Development, 3 (3), 170–205.    

Rieger R. & P. Ladurner, 2001. Searching for the stem species of the Bilateria. Belgian Journal of Zoology, 131 (Suppl. 1), 27-34.

Stoykov S. & S. Uzunova, 2001. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas. Mediterranean marine Science, 2 (1), 27-35.
The cited phoronid species cannot be referred to Phoronis euxinicola, which from original description seems to be a synonym of the burrowing P. hippocrepia: the possible species may be one of the occurring species in the soft substrates of the Black Sea, i.e. P. muelleri and P. psammophila (see Emig et al., 2003).

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2001. The morphology of the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri [in Russian]. Biol. Morya, Vladivostock, 27 (1), 34-42. - Translated in Rus. J. mar. Biol., 27 (1), 21–30.

Temereva E. N., V. V. Malakhov & V. V. Yushin, 2001. Histology and ultrastructure of the body wall in the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri [in Russian]. Biologiya Morya, Vladivostock, ? no data ? - Translated in Rus. J. mar. Biol., 27 (3), 156-167.

Wirtz P., 2001. New records of marine invertebrates from the Cape Verde Islands. Arquipélago. Life and Marine Sciences, 18A, 81-84.   >>   To download an PDF reprint > click here.

Young J.G., Chua K. N., de Mira H., Grace S., Hedocil M. T. & Heyrosa N. A., 2001. Additions to the marine zooplankton of Hilutangan Channel, Cebu Province, with recommendations for future research directions. Philippine Scientist, 38, 39-50.


Bailey-Brock J. H. & C. C. Emig, 2000. Hawaiian Phoronida (Lophophorata) and their distribution in the Pacific region. Pacific Science, 54 (2), 119-126.

Bergen M., D. Cadien, A. Dalkey, D. E. Montagne, R. W. Smith, J. K. Stull, R. G. Velarde & S. B. Weisberg, 2000. Assessment of benthic infaunal condition on the mainland shelf of Southern California. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 64, 421-434.

Cohen B. L., 2000. Monophyly of brachiopods and phoronids: reconciliation of molecular evidence with Linnaean classification (the subphylum Phoroniformea nov.) Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 267, 225-231.     >> See also Lophophorata

Conway Morris S., 2000. The Cambrian "explosion": slow-fuse or megatonnage? Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 97 (9), 4426-4429.

Dexter D. M.,2000. Marine Invertebrate Laboratory Manual, 44 p. Montezuma Publishing.   

Emig C. C., Roldán C. & J. M. Viéitez, 2000. Foronídeos del litoral luso-español. Phoronida from the Luso-Iberian zone. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Sec. Biol.), 96 (1-2), 77-83.

Freeman G., 2000. Regional specification during embryogenesis in the Craniiform brachiopod Crania anomala. Developmental Biology, 227 (1), 219-238.

Giribet G., Distel D. L., Polz M., Sterrer W. & Wheeler W. C., 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology, 49 (3), 539-562.

Hay-Schmidt A., 2000. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system. Proc. R. Soc. London, 267, 1071-1079.

Kulikova V. A, E. V. Solokhina & A. D. Samatov, 2000. Meroplankton of Avachinskii Inlet (Kamchatka). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 26 (1), 1-7.

Lu L. & R. S. S. Wu, 2000. An experimental study on recolonization and succession of marine macrobenthos in defaunated sediment. Marine Biology, 136 (2), 291 - 302.

Malakhov V. V. & E. N. Temereva, 2000. Embryonic development of the phoronid Phoronis ijimai [in Russian]. Biologiya Morya, Vladivostock, ? no data ? - Translated in Rus. J. mar. Biol., 26 (6), 412–421.

Morton B. & J.C . Britton, 2000. Origins of the Azorean intertidal biota: the significance of introduced species, survivors of chance events. Arquipelago - Life & mar. Sci., Suppl 2, Part A, 29–51.

Morton B. & J. C. Britton, 2000. The origins of the coastal and marine flora and fauna of the Azores. Oceanogr. mar. Biol., Ann. Rev., 38, 13-84.

Montaudouin (de) X. & P.-G. Sauriau, 2000.Contribution to a synopsis of marine species richness in the Perthuis Charentais Sea with new insights in soft-bottom macrofaua of the Marennes-Oléron Bay. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 41, 181-222.

Nezlin L. P., 2000. Tornaria of hemichordates and other dipleurula-type larvae: a comparison. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 38 (3), 149-156.

Riisgård H. U. & P. S. Larsen, 2000. Comparative ecophysiology of active zoobenthic filter feeding, essence of current knowledge. Journal of Sea Research, 44,169-193.

Salvini-Plawen L. von, 2000. What is convergent:homoplastic in Pogonophora? J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Research, 38, 133-147.

Temereva E. N., 2000. New phoronid species Phoronopsis malakhovi (Lophophorata, Phoronida) from the south China Sea [in Russian]. Zool. Zhurnal, 79 (9), 1088-1093.

Temereva E. N. & V. V. Malakhov, 2000. The circulatory sytem of phoronid larvae [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 375 (5), 712-714.

Temereva E. N., Malakhov V. V., Yakovis E. L. & M. V. Fokin, 2000. Phoronis ovalis (Phoronida, lopohpohrata) in the White Sea: the first discovery of phoronids in the Artic Basin [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 374 (4), 571-573.